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20 Cards in this Set

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Soviet post WWII policy towards Hungary-Name the 5 points of Uncertainty.
Some combo of these:
1) December 1944-Temp gov't set up, with weak communist involvment.
2) Soviets stripped the country.
3) No purges or excommunication of ex-leaders
4) Elections take place in Oct&Nov 1945, communist lose.
5) Moscow did not clamp down on Hungary because it did not want to antagonise the west while peace conferences were taking place.
Causes of Hungarian Revolution 1956.
The death of Stalin in 1953. Change in leadership in Hungary and Moscow. Hungarians want freedom.
Characteristics of Economic Decline. (9)
1) Decline in health.
2) Decline in infostructures ( schools, roads, etc.)
3) Increase in drug&alcohol addictions
4) Increase in pollution.
5) Increase in unemployment.
6) Increase in sucide rates.
7) Increase in divorce rates.
8) Increase in corruption.
9) Decrease in birth rates.
Janos Kadar's New Economic Mechanism.
Goal was to maintain social contract in these communist regimes. By keeping the work in Hungary. However weaker products showed the collapse in Hungary by mid-1970's.
Process of revolution in Hungary from Spring 1989 till Oct. 23 1989.
Spring 1989- Moscow says Hungary's internal politics are outside of Soviets security.
Summer 1989-Roundtable Negotiations.
August 1989-Strikes are legalized.
Sept 1989- Hungary allows East Germans to flea through its territory
Oct 1989- Communist renames itself the Hungarian Socialist Party. Grosz leaves
Oct 23 1989- Hungary turns into Republic of Hungary with a revised Multi-Party Parliamentary system.
Early signs of civil society in Hungary.
FIDESZ-Federation of Young Democrates.(Youth)
Democratic Forum (Intelligencia)
Alliance of Free Democrates (Intelligencia)
Democratic Teachers Union
Federation of Young Professionals.
Electoral Politics of Hungary March/April 1990-2002.
March/April 1990- 1st elections
-Communist lose and leave
-Democratic Forum Win
1994
-Hungarian Socialist win and are given the power
1998
-FIDESZ win and are given the power
2002
-Hungarian Socialist win and are given power.
Democratic legacy of Czechoslovakia. Elements in 1st republic.
1) Reguarly scheduled parliamentary elections.
2) Multi-Party System
3) Electoral system was proportial representation
4) Many volunteer & civil organizations.
2 major factors in communist legacy in Czechoslovakia.
1) Federalism w/ the national assembly w/ both provinces having equal representatoin.
2) Depression of Interest groups
7 Characteristics of Stalinism.
1) Absolute obediense to Soviet directions and hints
2) Administrative by Soviet Personal
3) Police Terror State
4) Economic depervation while pursuing unrealistic industralization.
5) Colonial like foreign trade dependence on Soviets.
6) Isolation from the non-communist world
7) Cult personality.
Charter 77 and Vaclav Havel.
Charter 77
Group of intellectuals who got together to exchange ideas, mainly human rights. Would latter be main arguers for democracy.
Have was spokesman and later jailed.
Prague Spring
Novony attempts a coy against the reformers and in 1968 he's put out and Dubcek is put in.
Dubcek calls for public debates on reform and reformers start to move into power.
Censorship is ended and officials submit to critizims.
Kremlin sees this as "Socialism w/a human face" until Czech calls for free & Fair elections at which point Moscow moves in and occupies with force.
Democratic Transition of Czechoslovakia.
Nov 89-June 90
-Parliamentary activism
-old communist resign & reformers move in
- constitution is reconstruction
-rise of republic centered political parties
Czech Legislature.
Bicameral w/ Senate(not formed till 96) and Chamber of Deputies.
Parliament elects pres who appoints PM.
2 opposition groups in Czechoslovakia.
Civic formum from Czech
National Council from Slovakia.
Czech parliamentary electoral politics.
1990- Havel's Civic Forum wins.
1992- Klaus's Civic Democratic Party wins
1996- Civic Democratic Party wins
1998- Czech Social Democratic party wins due to scandals with Zeman as leader. Klause is made chair of Parliament through agreement.
2002- Czech Social Democratic party wins Spidla new leader and ends Klaus's rule.
Slovakian Legislature
Parlimentary Democracy w/ uni-cameral body. National Council w/150 members. Pres now direct elected. PM through parliament.
Slovakian parlimentary electoral politics
1992- Movement for a Democratic Slovakia wins with Meciar as leader.
1993- elections hold with Kovas as pres.
March 1994- Vote of no confidence is cast and an Inter gov't takes over w/ a 5 party collalition.
Oct 94-Meciar and party with again.
March 98- Kovac leaves presidency open and Meciar takes power.
Sept 98- Meciar's party loses and Slovakia Democratic Collalition wins new collalition majority. Dzurinda new PM.
Sept. 2002- HZDS wins but SDK forms collaltion and wins.
2 consequences due to abruptness of transition in Czech.
1) No rountable negotiations
2) No time for unification
2 Expinations for Velvet Divorce.
1) Political- Parites and national council. 2 different leaders and power struggle.
2) economic- heavy industries took place on both sides, Slovakia more vulnerable.