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35 Cards in this Set

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Definition of Management?
The process of administering and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the goals ofthe organization.
What are the 4 processes of management?
1) Planning-setting goals and defining the actions to achieve those goals.
2) Organizing-determining the tasks to be done, who will do them, and how those tasks will be managed and coordinated.
3) Leading-motivating and directing the members of the org. so that they contribute to the achievement of the goals of the org.
4)Controlling-monitoring the performance of the org., identifying deviations between planned and actual results, and taking corrective action when necessary.
3 types of managerial roles?
1) Interpersonal-managing relationships with organizational members and other constituents.
2) Informational-gathering and disseminating information to the stakeholders of the org.
3) Decisional-processing information andreaching conclusions.
Skills needed at different levels of Management - First Line Management?
More Technical
Skills needed at different levels of Management - Middle Management?
More Human
Skills needed at different levels of Management - Top Management?
More conceptual.
Define Hyperchange?
A condition of rapid, dramatic, complex,and unpredictable changes that has a significant effect on the ways in which organizations are managed.
8 points of the competencies of tomorrows managers and leaders?
1) The great communicator
2) The individual coach
3) The team player
4) The technology master
5) The problem solver
6) The foreign ambassador
7) The change agent
8) The lifelong learner
Managerial Skill Sets - Traditional v. Emerging
Tradtional - Planning, leading, organizing, controlling.

Emerging - adapting, coaching, facilitating, learning. (More of a learning environment)
5 Environmental factors influencing managment thought?
1) Economic-relate to the availability, production, and distrubution of resources within a society.
2) Social-relate to the aspects of a culture that influence interpersonal relationships.
3) Political-relate to the impact of political institutions on individuals and organizations.
4) Technological-relate to advances and refinements in any of the devices used in conjunction with conducting business.
5) Global-relate to the pressures to improve quality, productivity, and costs as organziations attempt to compete in the worldwide marketplace.
5 Schools of management thought?
1) Classical
2) Behavioral
3) Quantitative
4) Systems
5) Contingency
Classical Perspective of management thought.
Three Parts-
1) Scientific Management-focuses on the productivity by task performance and motivation.
2) Administrative Management-focuses on managersand the functions they perform.
3) Bureaucratic Mangement-focuses on the overall organizational system.
Behavioral Perspective of management thought.
Ability of workers to influence managerial decisions through the formation of powerful labor unions. Amid these changes, managers were increasingly finding that workers did not always exhibity behaviors that were consistent with classical theorists.
Hawthorne Effect?
Phenomenon whereby individual or group performances is influenced by human behavior factors. Elton Mayo - Lighting
Theory X?
Managers percieve that their subordinates have an inherent dislike of work and that they will avoid it if at all possible. They need to be coerced, directed, or threatened. - Douglas McGregor.
Theory Y?
Managers percieve that their subordinates enjoy work and that they will gain satisfaction from performing their jobs. Self-motivated and self-directed.
Quantitative Perspective of management thought.
Roots in the scientific management approaches and is characterized by its use of mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques for management decision making and problem solving.
Systems Perspective of management thought.
An appreoach that attacks complex systems by breaking them down into their constituent elements.

Input - Output - Feedback
Contingency Perspective of management thought.
Proposed that the best managerial approach is contingent on key variables in a agiven organizational situation.
Theory Z?
Place trust in the employees and make them feel like an integral part of the organization.
Define Stakeholders?
People who are affected by or can affect the activities of the firm.

i.e.- customers, owners, suppliers, and employees.
Define Social Responsibility?
H.R. Bowen proposed that businesses and managers have an obligation to "pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action that are desirable in terms of the objectives and values of our society."
3 perspectives of social resonsibility?
1) Economic-responsibility of business to make a profit within the "rules of the game" - Org. can't be moral agents but individuals can.
2) Public-business should act in a way that is consistent with societys view of responsible behavior.
3) Social-business should proactively seek to contribute to society in a positive way. - Org.s should develop internal environment that encourages ehtical behavior on an individual level.
4 Social Responsibility Strategies?
1) Reaction-assumes a reaction stance simply fails to act ina sociall responsible manner.
2) Defense-to respond to social challenges only when it is necessary to defend their current position.
3) Accommodation-corporate social responsibility readily adapt their behaviors to comply with public policy and regulation where necessary and, more important, attempt to be responsive to public expectations.
4) Proaction-subscribe to the notion of social responsiveness. Do no operate in terms of profit or compliance public policy, but rather seek to improve the welfare of society.
Define Ethical Behavior?
Behavior that ismorally accepted as good or right as opposed to bad or wrong.
3 Managerial Guidlines for ethical dilemmas?
1) Utility approach-decisions are based on an evaluation of the overall amount of good that will result.
2) Human Rights approach-decisions are made in light of the moral entitlements of human beings.
3) Justice approach-decisions are based on an equitable, fair, and impartial distrubtion of benefits and costs among indivduals and groups.
Define Wistleblowing?
Someone who exposes organizational misconduct or wrongdoing to the public.
Define Planning?
Setting goals and defining the actions necessary to achieve those goals.
4 Benefits of planning?
1) Better Coordination
2) Focus on Forward Thinking
3) Participatory Work Environment
4) More Effective Control System
Where should planning begin?
*Top-Down
or
Bottom-Up
Strategic Planning v. Operational Planning
Strategic Planning - process by which an organizaiton makes decision and takes actions to enhance its long-term performance.

Operational Planning - process of determining the day-to-day activities that are necessary to achieve the long-term goals of the organization.
4 parts of Strategic Planning?
1) Opportunity
2) Strategy
3) Orgaization
4) Execution
2 Essential parts of Strategic Planning (critical)
1) Competitive Advantage - any aspect of the org. that distinguishes it from its competitors stragically.
2) Sustainable Advantage - long-term advantage.
3 Levels of Strategic Planning?
1) Corporate - define the portfolio of business units that an org. maintains.
2) Business - define how each business unit in the firm's corporate portfolio will operate in its market arena.
3) Functional - specifies the production, research and development, financial, human resource management, and marketing activities necessary to implement the org.'s corporate and business strategies.
Define an MBO?
A method for devloping individualized plans that guide the activies of indivdual members of an org.