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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Disturbance
Dispute in public relating to arguments between people, neighbors shouting at each other, public bar fights.
Domestic Disturbance
-Dispute involving 2 or more people engaged in an intimate relationship
-Problems between adults, children, elderly parents
-Usually occur in same-sex relationships
Domestic Violence
-Apprx. 578,000 non-violent crimes committed against persons by their spouses, girl/boyfriends (NCVS)
-(13%) Wives experience some form of domestic violence
-Usually spousal or child violence
Order Maintenance & Peacekeeping
-Main role for police; resolve problems that exist
Citizen Expectations in Non-Crime Incidents (MYER)
1) Maintain Social Boundaries = remove someone not belonging.
2) Relieve Unpleasant Situations = call for noises, arguments, disturbances.
3) Counterpunching = diverting attention away from a person's behaviors.
4) Obtain Services = emergencies, missing persons.
Drunk Driving Crackdowns
-Started in 1980's
-Raised legal drinking age to 21
-Random stops, checks
-Small % of drivers actually drive drunk
-Anti-drunk-driving programs
Calling Police
-Many victims do not call
-Female victims call (62%)
-Low-income call more
-Non-white females call more
-Middle-class females turn to private sources
-MOST DO NOT CALL BECAUSE IT IS A PRIVATE MATTER
Police Options in Handling Domestic Disturbances
-Arrest
-Mediation
-Separate parties from each other
-Refer to social services
-No action taken
-Police often ask a person to cease all illegal behavior at first
Bruno v. Codd (1978)
-Women's group had been denied equal protections of law by failing to arrest persons involved in committing assault (domestic violence)
-Lead to NYC police POLICIES mandating arrest in cases of felonious assaults
Impact of Arrest on Domestic Violence
-Many people believe arrests DETER domestic violence
-Date = arrests have different impacts/effects on different people.
Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
-ARRESTS produce LOWER RATES of repeat violence
-Re-arrest percentages when... = Arrested (10%) Mediated (19%) Separated (24%)
Omaha Domestic Violence Research
-NO DETERRENT EFFECT found when arresting
-ARRESTS appeard to ESCALATE violence among unemployed
Policing Homeless (Problems)
-Homeless flock to camps
-Resist transportation to shelters
-Sleep in stations/subways
-REACTIVE policing for complaints about homeless people
-Police attempt to contain homeless to one area in order to minimize disorder & out of public view
-PROACTIVENESS is used by the "CSO's" in some agencies
Policing Juveniles
-Greater emphasis on LAW ENFORCEMENT
-Conflicting policing responsibilities
-Specialized Juvenile Units; investigations, arrests, court cases
Black & Reiss Research
-72% encounters between police and juveniles were INITIATED by PHONE CALL
-Officers contact at higher rates than adults
-Higher Arrest Rates; African American juveniles involvement in crime.
Piliavin & Briar Research
-African American juveniles express hostility towards police more often
-"Self-fulfilling" consequences of original set of police attitudes & behavior toward black offenders.
-Police expect black juveniles to engage in more law-breaking situations
Handling Mentally Ill
1) Hospitalization
2) Arrests
3) Informal Disposition (75% - most common)

-Officers have been inadequately trained, traditionally
-Recognize mental disorders
-"Baker Act"
-Commitment procedures
-Rights of Mentally Ill
Police Executive Research Forum (PERF)
-Sponsors research
-National membership organization of progressive police executives
-Improving policing and advancing professionalism
Old/New Problems Handling Mentally Ill
1) Problems = ARRESTING/FORCE mentally ill persons

2) Officers are provided several options that fit needs of mentally ill; 24-hour responses

3) Link mentally ill with community services and programs

4) Services take place in police locations
Policing People with HIV/AIDS
-Risk of infection
-Officer potential for exposure is higher than most
-Agencies keep records of infected
-HIV/AIDS education provided
D.A.R.E.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education; (71%) of all P.D.'s offer drug education
Race Descrimination
-African American arrested more than whites
-Patrols assigned to more minority neighborhoods
-Observe African American youth more frequently
-Blacks ARRESTED at HIGHER RATES = RACIAL DISPARITY
Vice Offenses
-Prostitution
-Victimless Crimes
-Streetwalkers
-Bar Girls
-Skeezers
-Brothels
-Call Girls
Alcohol-Related Arrests
-Reduces probability of catching other drunk drivers
-Time-consuming event
-Takes 1 or more officers
-Takes 1-4 HOURS
-Unable to make further arrests or deter drunk drivers
-Difficult to sustain
-Reduces level of arrest activity