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71 Cards in this Set

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A variable that is controlled or fixed by the researcher. This variable may have an effect on the dependent variable. Also known as X-variable, predictor variable, explanatory variable, and factor.
Independant Variable
a responding variable; a factor or condition that might change as a result of a change in a manipulated independent variable.
Dependant Variable
having the supreme legislative power resting with a body of cabinet ministers chosen from and responsible to the legislature or parliament; "parliamentary government. The presidential government however is seperate form the legislature and elected directly by the people.
Parliament v. Presidential
Form of democracy based upon the supreme authority of the legislature.
Dominant party usually gains the majority of the seats and controls the pull of the government.
Based on Fusion of powers-
Accountability of elected representatives to single districts with a plurality system of election
PM leads his or her party
Party control over nominations to parliament
Effect of media-In recent years the leaders have been younger and attempt to appeal to the younger generation.
Party members tend to be homogonous with their party
Westminister model
Appointed by the PM, but have varying views than the PM
Cabinet government
646 elected mebers. Districts are relatively equal to population, but weighted towards small districts. The place where laws are passed and bills originate. Has a power to give a vote of no confidence thus removing the PM.
House of Commons--size, power
Only power really is to delay bills for up to a year.
House of Lords
Power to lead the majority party in Parliament.
Holds on power include Cabinet government,
The Shadow cabinet,
The Bureaucracy,
The voters
Powers of/Limits of PM
legislator who does not hold governmental office and is not a Front Bench spokesperson in the Opposition. May be a new parliamentary member yet to receive high office, a senior figure dropped from government, or someone who for whatever reason is not chosen to sit either in the ministry or the opposition Shadow Ministry.
Formed by the second largest party in the government . They become familiar with the department of which they are assigned and they monitor It. Any little mistake they notice they will point out.
Shadow cabinet
Pushed by Blair. An alternative to both pure, free market capitalism and the kind of economic order represented by strong welfare states
Combines support for economic deregulation, privatization, and globalization with investment in social and human capital to compensate “losers” and help them become more productive.
Desire Britain to be more Involved with the EU.
New Labour/Third Way
Originally openly Socialist, Blair made the party more conservative by supporting privatization of industries, but not privatizing programs, working class is the main part of the Labour Party, for integration into the EU.
Labour Party
In favor of privatization
In favor of governments staying out of private property, but more conservative values.
Conservative Party (Tories)
The centrist party of the UK. historically combined a commitment to "social justice" and the welfare state with a belief in economic freedom and competitive markets wherever possible.
Generally promoting political and social liberalism, they describe themselves as being concerned with the use of power in British and international society. They are wary of the power of the state over individuals, and as a principle seek to minimise state intervention in personal affairs
Liberal Democrats
Electoral system over represents the dominant party in the UK (Tories and Labour. The French political spectrum is broader
France even though a multiple party system, it has had 2 main party blocks. 5 main parties which are the PC, PS, UDF, UMP, and FN.
Electoral Vote and Legislative seats of main parties (France, Britain)
PC=Communist Party
PS=Socialist Party
UDF=Union for French Democracy
UMP=Union for People's Movement
FN-National Front
5 main parties in France
In the UK describes the agencies produced by the growing trend of government devolving power to appointed, or self-appointed bodies.
British have not joined the EMU in order to maintain their soveigrnty. The French are apart of both EMU and EU, but are dealing with much criticism from their people who feel it is hurting their economic position.
EU vs. EMU; British and French position
no state intervention, free-market, Adam Smith, Collective Consensus during WWII-state managing sectors of the economy, full employment, regulate the economy, take responsibility for the welfare of citizens, National Health Service,
Laissez Faire
Formal representative body for the UK's labor force and includes 70 different unions in its membership. The is the official representative for British workers in international bodies, such as the EU, and works to develop policies and influence government on workplace issues.
Trades Union Congress
Privatization of state industries and services, fiscal discipline, let employment fall to natural level.
Led the New Labour/Third Way movement in the UK. Pm of UK. Head of the Labour Party.
Tony Blair
PM of UK from 1979 to 1990. Began Thatcherism. Privatization of state-owned industries, and services.
Allow employment to find its natural level. Fiscal discipline instead of state spending.
Draw back from the welfare provisions. Reduce the government services.
Involved taking on labor unions in order to fight the benefits that were being spread around.
She was able to privatize housing, but less successful in privatizing healthcare, and education.
Margaret Thatcher
Was the most significant early influence on the long historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today.
Magna Carta
Apolitical party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. Also used to mean the voting instructions issued to members.
Established the European Economic Community (EEC). Became one of the three parts of the establishment of the EU.
Treaties of Rome
European Economic Community. founded in 1957 and established by the Treaties of Rome. It's members include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
It's purpose was the integration of its members' economies into a single frontierless market that would have a common currency and a common central bank. Free markets were a must.
EEC-Foundation, Members, Purpose
Established the EU. Entered into force in 1993 after being signed in the Netherlands in 1992. The treaty led to the creation of the euro, and introduced the three-pillar structure (the Economic and Social Policy pillar, the Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP pillar, and the Justice and Home Affairs pillar). The CFSP pillar was built on the foundation of European Political Cooperation (EPC), but brought it under a treaty and extended it. The JHA pillar introduced cooperation in law enforcement, criminal justice, civil judicial matters, and asylum and immigration.
The Maastricht Treaty
Came into existance with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The main purposes were To contain Germany by integrating it economically.
Felt Germany would think twice about invading if their own economy was at risk.
To rebuild Europe as quickly as possible, in order to prevent communist revolutions or new fascist regimes.
And To stop the advancements of the Soviets into Europe.
Members if it include 25 member states.
EU--Foundation, members, purpose
More than one representative in the district, same percent of seats as % of vote.
Proportional Representation
one seat in the district, First place party with any vote percentage receives the seat.
Simple Majority Single Ballot (AKA Plurality)
-Hegemonic=one party bipartisan=two parties multipartisan=3-5 extreme multi=6-8 atomization=more than 8
Sartori's Party System Types
Part of Sartori's system of counting parties. Parties that have a realistic chance of winning national election and/or participating in the winning coalition that elects prime minister.
Governing Potential
Part of Sartorie's system of counting parties. Applies to parties that have NO realistic chance of winning, but whose existence affects the tactics of party competition particularly when it alters the direction of competition, forcing governing parties to shift is position.
Blackmail Potential
The number of seats that are elected in a district. in a plurality system this equals one, while in a proprtional system this equals one or more.
Ditrict magnitude
A plurality system naturally leads to a two-party system. In a single member district candidates will drive for the position and tqo main candidates will emerge pushing any third parties out.
Duverger's Law
There is no complete separation of powers or total integration of powers. There is a president and a Prime Minister.
They compare by the first one has constitutional power lying in the hands of the central national government, while the other has it spread between a central government and many other auhorities.
Unitary vs. Federal System
Judicial review has to do with the interpretation of Law and whether or not they are constitutional. In the UK there is no Judicial review. In France there is Judicial review, but it can only be brought forward by members of Parliament or the President to the Constitutional Council.
Judicial review (application to UK and France)
In france it meant the change from a Parliamentary System into a semi-presidential system. The switchoccurred in 1958. The goal was to create a new French government in which one power being the president would have greater authority.
French Fourth vs. Fifth Republic
Includes 577 members. Names Prime Minister, cabinet
Presides over Cabinet meetings
May dismiss national assembly, call new elections (but not more than once a year)
National Assembly (Size, Powers)
321 members that are much weaker than the Assembly. The assembly may dismiss the government at will and so it gives them power over the senate. Bills usually are debated out with the ___, but acompromise is usually met or else it is pushed through anyway.
Senate (France)
National Security/Foreign Policy: Commander in Chief of the Army
Right to negotiate/ ratify treaties
Chairs national defense committee
Powers vis-a-vis National Assembly:
Names Prime Minister, cabinet
Presides over Cabinet meetings
May dismiss national assembly, call new elections (but not more than once a year)
Legislative Powers:
Can bypass National Assembly by proposing referendums, including constitutional reforms
May issue binding executive regulations
May declare national emergency and assume sweeping “dictatorial” powers
Power vas-a-vis Judiciary
Names 1/3 of the Constitutional Council (Supreme Court) without additional approval.

Limits of include:
The People-ust be elected
Term limits
Powers of limits of French President
Has the power of judicial review in France. Unlike the US however only members of congress and the president may bring forward a complaint to them.
Constitutional Council
In France the President is forced to share power with a rival as Prime Minister, possibly even the person the defeated in the election. The Prime Minister then shares power with the president. Happens when the Assembly is held by an opposing party than the elected president.
A vote in France that can result in the removal of the Prime Minister from office.
Censure Vote
The PM In France has the power of the block vote. He or she can block Parliament’s vote and force them to vote on a bill. The PM can not recognize any amendments made by the National Assembly It allows them to push the bill through. An all or nothing move.
Blocked Vote (France)
The President can bypass the Assembly in France by proposing a _______ including constitutional changes.
Referendum (France)
The French parties in order from left to right.
French Parties (PC,PS,UDF,UMP,FN)
The Communist Party of France.
French party PC The Communist Party
France. It is the largest left party in France.Since 1980s, more social democrat than socialist
Aims to reform the capitalist system in order to limit is perceived injustices and bring about more equality
Associated with Third Way Policies
French Party PS The Socialist Party
Generally pro-market
Favors EU integration
Social conservatism (Christian Democrat)
French Party UMP Union for the People’s Movement
Largest party in France on the right. Jacques Chirac heads it up in his second term. It is conservative, but not as far right as FN.
French Party UMP
Led by Jean-Marie Le Pen it is the fastest growing party, but still does not hold any seats. Deportation of immigrants; strong measures to prevent immigration
Return to “traditional” values; to include limits on abortion; paying women to stay home and raise children; refusing “aberrant” cultures such as gay cultures.
Compulsory military service
Greater independence from EU
Protectionism against cheap imports
Reinstatement of the death penalty
French Party FN
Large firms in key industrial sectors
Formed by sate pressure on private companies to merge, or directly owned by the state. (war industries)
Though partly autonomous, CEO chosen by state, firms depended on state for capital investment
Economic Champions
Prior to WWII. A period when the French economy was stagnant. There was limited economic growth. The economy contained many farmers and shop keepers in which there was not very much a move to industrialization.
Stalemate Society
It is French for direction. It highlights state’s importance in steering economy. Macroeconomic management coordinated with private sector (monetary, fiscal, price, regulation) Involves economic champions.
reduction of state role in economy.
Allow employment to find its natural level. Fiscal discipline instead of state spending.
Draw back from the welfare provisions. Reduce the government services.
Current President of France in his second term. Part of the UMP. Generally pro-market
Favors EU integration
Social conservatism (Christian Democrat)
Jacques Chirac
Head of the National Front (FN) party. It is the fastest growing party and the most conservative. Deportation of immigrants; strong measures to prevent immigration
Return to “traditional” values; to include limits on abortion; paying women to stay home and raise children; refusing “aberrant” cultures such as gay cultures.
Compulsory military service
Greater independence from EU
Protectionism against cheap imports
Reinstatement of the death penalty.
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Socialist President
Elected 1981
After initial attempt to further socialize economy, initiates privatization, reduction of state role in economy.
Francois Mitterand
Was elected as president of France in 1958 and began the ideology called Gaullism. Mainly conservative supporting social conservatism, and economic dirigisme and volontarisme.
Charles De Gaulle
Drafts proposals for European laws
Manages the day-to-day business if implementing EU policies and spending EU funds
Imposes fines and penalties on members who violate EU rules
The President of the ______, chosen by the EU governments and endorsed b y the European Parliament.
Other ______nominated by their national governments and approved by parliament
_________do not represent the governments of their home countries. Instead, each of them has the responsibility for a particular EU policy area.
The European Commission.
Elected every five years by the people of Europe to represent their interests; 732 members
Passes European laws which apply to all EU members
Can dismiss the European Commission
European Parliament
Requires participating governments to comply with strict conditions:
Country’s budget deficit cannot exceed 3% of its gross domestic product (GDP) for more than a short period.
Public borrowing must not exceed 60% of GDP.
Advantages of _____
Allows shippers to compare prices directly in the 12 countries that use it. As a result, manufactures and retailers have taken steps to cut unjustifiably high prices.
Travel for shopping, leisure or business from one euro county to another is cheaper because no money needs to be changed and no commission paid.
Disadvantages of _____
Severely limits financial policy sovereignty.
Tends to undermine social spending within ___countries.
European Monetary Union
arties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. There are either closed in which the party determines the order or open list in which the voters determine the order.
Party List
a clause that you must receive a certain percentage of the vote to even receive a seat. It discourages extremists parties from gaining control.
Electoral threshold
The person with the highest amount of votes regardless of whether or not they receive more than 50% will win that seat. This is the system in the US and the UK.
Simple majority (AKA plurality)
Winning candidate must get absolute majority in the vote. If not the top two candidates go on to the next round. This is the French system.
Second Ballot (AKA Dual Ballot)
are more likely to see higher rates of abstention in hegemonic and bipartisan. In these people feel there is not a party that represents them.
Under proportional
systems there is a tendency towards multipartism. Regional concnetrations and emerging third parties can get ahold because they do not need a plurality. They can unite a small group of people and gain a seat.
Duverger's Hypothesis