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75 Cards in this Set

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---- gives us direction but does not tell us what to think. it does not give a description. ex: stop, restroom, green light
SIGN
---- tells us what images to look for in our culturally encoded experience in order to determine how we should feel about the thing represented. ex: goldern arches, democracy, criminal
SYMBOL
----- give us direction, while ---- tells us how we should feel about something.
SIGNS, SYMBOLS
---- is a system of values and beliefs regarding the various institutions and processes of society that is accepted as fact or truth by a group of people
IDEOLOGY
---- provides the believer with a picture of the world both as it is and as it should be, and, in doing so, organizes the tremendous complexity of the world into something fairly simple and understandable
AN IDEOLOGY
Ideologies are ---- about the world we live in.
STORIES
Ideologies help us make ---- based on --- and ---.
CHOICES,
VALUES AND BELIEFS
The four functions of ideology are:
1) PROVIDES AN EXPLANATION OF REALITY
2) SET OF STANDARDS FOR NORMATIVE EVALUATION
3) GUIDE AND COMPASS FOR ACTION
4) SIMPLIFIES REALITY
An ideology that focuses on the political is -----.
POLITICAL IDEOLOGY
Sargeant tells us that the political is ---- gets ----, ----, and ----.
WHO,
WHAT, WHEN, NOW
Sargeant also says political is the authorative ---- of ----- for a -----.
ALLOCATION, VALUES, SOCIETY
Our view is ideoligical if, ------.
WE ONLY SEE THE WORLD ONE WAY
Our view is theoretical if we are ----
ASKING A QUESTION ABOUT THE WAY THE WORLD IS/OR THE WAY IT SHOULD BE
--- said, "the unexamined life is not worth living."
SOCRATES
ideologies are tied to ---- . ex: social movements
POWER INTERESTS
--- help us understand the relationship between theory and practice. ex: civil rights, women's right, environmentalist, traditions.
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
---- said that ideologies blind people to facts about their place in society, workers are taught to think by capitilasts.
KARL MARX
---- used "myth' as an ideology, and the general strike, said a mass movement develops a visionof the future which might be utopian but motivates people.
GEORGES SOREL
--- said belief systems are based on on the repression of our psychologial needs, ideologies keep us deluded, but they also keep us oriented.
SIGMUND FREUD
--- said the ruling class dominates means of socialization (education, media, religion, family), it rules by 'force' not by consent, the result is hegemony.
ANTONIO GRAMSCI
--- had a total 'group think' belief held in common, 'socialism is bad', don't trust anyone over 30. in particiular, my view is right, yours is wrong.
KARL MANHEIM
--- said ideologies are systems or symbols that bring order to the world, symbol derive from culture, they create a matrix that provides orientation for individuals.
CLIFFORD GEERTZ
--- said ideologies tell us what 'core values' mean, equality- everyone is equal but some are more than others, through ideologies we come to know the right meaning or justice, liberty, and equality.
MICHAEL FREEDEN
some thought that ideology ended in the 50s and 60s because....
NO SOCIAL CONFLICT
THERE WAS COOPERATION AND COMPROMISE
why compare ideologies?
1) REMEMBER DIFFERENCES AND VALUES THAT EXIST AROUND THE WORLD
2) TOLERANCE
3) RETHINK OUR OWN IDEAS
4) UNDERSTAND SIMILIARITY OF IDEAS
---- provides us with the basis for evalutiing each ideology from within that ideology.
VALUE SYSTEM
--- is the process by which individuals accept the values from their society as their own (family, education, religion)
SOCILIZATION SYSTEM
---- democracy is where citizens take part personally in delibartions and vote on issues, citizens debate and vote on laws
DIRECT
---- democracy is when citizens choose (elect) other citizens to debate and pass on laws.
REPRESENTATIVE
Participation in democracy includes:
1) VOTING
2) POLITICAL PARTY/INTERST GROUPS
3) POLITICAL MEETINGS OR PUBLIC HEARINGS
4) CALLING YOUR REPRESENTATIVE
propenents of this theory state that:

-elites (experts) should rule
-citizens choose b/t elite proposals
-result is smooth running gov't/society
-politics are too complex for avg. citizen to be able to create good policy
ELITIST THEORY OF DEMOCRACY
opponents of this theory state

-efficiency is not as important as citizen influence of desicion making
-avg citizen is capable of understanding complexity of politcs
ELITIST THEORY OF DEMOCRACY
proponents of this say

-competeting intesrst groups check eachothers power, none too strong
-protects citizens from centralized power
-protects diversity of interests w/in society
PLURALISM
opponents say

-overriding interests remain and should stay in power
-doesn't protect freedom unless freedom is in interest of the powerful
-maintains the status quo
PLURALISM
propenents say

-int. groups are integrated into the gov't
-more harmonious interactions w/in society
-int. groups help govt make good desicions that reflect common good of the society
CORPORATISM
this increases the power of the unelected people, concept tainted by facisim, reduces citizen involevement
CORPORATISM
--- says people are more likely to follow laws they helped make, must create incentives for more participation (term limits, recall elections)
PARTICAPATORY DEMOCRACY
opponents say its impractical in large republics and policies will less often be made by experts.
PARTICAPTORY DEMOCRACY
"a lawyer represents a client when he or she acts in place of or for the client." citizens delegate power to representatives to act for themelves. this is an example of ---- of ----.
SYSTEM OF REPRESENTATION
the ---- of --- states that

-law is supreme
-no one is above the law
-popular soveirgnty
RULE OF LAW
--- was a man who feared the majority, the solution was states' rights, seprate powers (legislative, judicial, executive branch)
JAMES MADISON
constraints of voting include...
age, citizenship, felony record, age or physical disablity
--- is the ability to act without restraint, but 'harm priniciple' your freedom to swing your arms stops at my nose
FREEDOM
---- guarantess social and political freedom
LIBERTY
--- is legally guaranteed freedom
RIGHTS
--- is the ability to do what you want within a sat of rule/boundaries.
FREEDOM
--- is the ability to do what you want without rules or boundaries.
LISCENCE
--- are rights a person has as a human being.
NATURAL (HUMAN) RIGHTS
--- are rights derived from the government.
CIVIL RIGHTS
--- and John Locke stated that human beings have natural rights that should never be taken away by the gov't.
NIGHT WATCHMENS STATE
the three rights that should never be taken away according to the night watch-man state are...
LIFE, LIBERTY, PROPERTY
--- --- states that the gov't should ensure conditions in which the full develpment or each individual is possible.

right to self presveartion, food, shelter, clothing, the unviversal declartion of human rights, right to education, basic needs, and work.
POSITIVE LIBERTY
Ways to limit government?
FREQUENT ELECTIONS, WATCH DOGS, CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE, PROTEST, REVOLUTION
Name some civil liberties.
RIGHT TO VOTE, SPEECH, PRESS, ASSEMBLY, RELIGION, MOVEMENT
are capitilasim and democracy linked?
NO
are socialism and democracy exclusive?
NO, MOST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ARE SOCIAL DEMOCRACIES
--- is the economic system based on private property and free markets.
CAPITALISM
what are the five components of capitialism?
1) PRIVATE OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY
2) NO LMT ON ACCUMULATION OF PROPERTY
3) NO GOVT INTERVENTION IN ECONOMY
4) PROFIT MOTIVE IS DRIVING FORCE
5) PROFIT AS MEASURE OF EFFICIENCY
adam smith said humans are motivated by ---- ----. result is the ---- ----, which provides an effecient econmy.
SELF INTEREST, INVISIBLE HAND
----- had to fight against against the system of their time -----.
CAPITALISTS, FEUDALISM
the main catalyst for a mixed economy was the ---- ----. with specific areas of interest in retirement, health, unempolyment, and education.
GREAT DEPRESSION
------- argued that depressions could be avoided if the gov't pumped money into the economy.
JOHN MAYNARD KEYES
need bases welfare system includes...
FOOD STAMPS, AID TO FAMILIES W/ DEPENDANT CHILDREN, UNEMPLOYMENT
non need based welfare includes...
PENSION, SOCIAL SECURITY
--- --- said that ideology blinds us, can't see our own interest, capitalism teaches workers how to think, but there are more workers than capitalists
KARL MARX
--- --- had the idea of total conception, group or total effort, think as a collective body
KARL MANHEIM
in a socialism form of gov't, what's the most importana aspect?
INTEGRATION OF POLITICS AND ECONOMY
capitailism promotes the sepeartion of --- and ---.
GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMICS
4 functions of ideology!
1) SIMPLIFY REALITY
2) SERVES AS GUIDE TO ACTION
3) GIVES US EXPECATION OF REALITY
4) GIVE SETS OF STANDARD FOR NORMATIVE JUDGEMENT
"better to die on you feet than live on your knees" means what?
YOU HAVE TO STRUGGLE FOR WHAT YOU BELIEVE IN, LIVE ACCORDING TO YOUR VALUES AND STRUGGLE FOR THEM.
demos and cratos mean what?
DEMOS- PEOPLE
CRATOS- RULE
an argument for capitalism may say it promotes cretivity and efficiency, but it provides a gap between what?
THE RICH AND POOR
in the movie, america invaded rights guaranteed by what?
THE GENEVA CONVENTION
private ownership or property, free market, the abilty to buy and sell freely are key elements of what?
CAPITALISM
the three main components of reason are
THOUGHT, INTERFERENCE, AND JUDGEMENT