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219 Cards in this Set

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What was the primary duty of the 'sergeants' serving in King Gustavus I Army?
To maintain discipline among the troops
At what point in American military history did the NCO achieve command level status?
After the Revolutionary War, when the Regular Army was created
What were the roles of the NCO prior to WWII?
-NCOs served as an interface between the enlisted corps and the officers.
-NCOs were experienced in all aspects of the unit's mission and knew all the men under their supervision thoroughly.
-maintained tight discipline,
-had close contact with NCOs of other units
-had the freedom & authority to handle all enlisted affairs internally
What impact did the rapid expansion of the military services during WWII have on the status of the NCO?
As competency and experience levels declined, so did the associated responsibilities. The entire NCO corps experienced a general erosion of its long-standing prestige and authority
What event was the first attempt to restore dignity and prestige to the NCO corps following WWII?
The Air Force restricted its noncommissioned officer status to the top three grades. It also revised the nomenclature of its lowest grades.
Why were the pay grades of E-8 and E-9 created?
To provide for a better delineation of responsibilities in the enlisted structure. It also provided the necessary monetary recognition for the jobs being performed by those who held the grades
What was the significance of the chevron in the late 1700's?
French soldiers started wearing cloth chevrons with the points up on their coat sleeves in 1777 as length of service and good conduct badges. In 1782 General George Washington ordered that enlisted men who had served for three years 'with bravery, fidelity, and good conduct' wear as a badge of honor, 'a narrow piece of white cloth, of angular form' on the left sleeve of the uniform coat.
Why was the design of the Air Force enlisted grade insignia changed in 1975 and in 1994?
In 1975, the silver-gray star on the insignia was replaced with a blue star for airmen. The silver-gray star came to represent NCO status and was worn by E-4 Sergeants and above. In 1994, since the grade of E-4 Sergeant had been removed from the enlisted grade structure, all airmen (E-2 through E-4) grade insignia returned to a white star in the blue circle. On the master sergeants insignia, a chevron from the bottom was moved to the top to further distinguish the 'top three' enlisted grades.
What are the responsibilities of the Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force?
The CMSAF is a representative of the airman force when and where this is appropriate and will serve as a sounding board for ideas and proposals affecting airman matters. He or she will advise and assist the Chief of Staff and the Secretary of the Air Force in matters concerning enlisted members of the Air Force.
Why was the position of Command Chief Master Sergeant (previously Senior Enlisted Advisor) created?
The CCM duties include ensuring that enlisted members know the commander's policies, advising the commander on problems concerning moral of the enlisted force, and evaluation the quality of NCO leadership, management, and supervisory training. The CCM also monitors compliance with Air Force standards, serves on advisory councils, and maintains a close relationship with the local community
What are the general areas of responsibility of a first sergeant?
The first sergeant's duties are separated into five areas: promoting health, morale, and welfare; maintaining discipline and standards; preparing and presenting squadron training and information programs; supervising care and upkeep of squadron dormitories; and monitoring unit administration.
What significant contribution did Corporal Vernon L. Burge make to Air Force enlisted history?.
Corporal Vernon L. Burge holds a distinct place of honor in aviation history as the first enlisted pilot (US Signal Corps). He also served on the Army's first and only dirigible
What significant contribution did Corporal Frank S. Scott make to Air Force enlisted history?.
Corporal Frank S. Scott was the first enlisted man to lose his life in an air accident. Scott AFB is the only Air Force Base named for an enlisted person
What significant contribution did Private Frederick Libby make to Air Force enlisted history?
Many historians consider Private Frederick Libby the first enlisted ace. According to several sources, during World War I, Libby shot down ten planes as an observer and fourteen more as a pilot for a total of 24.
What significant contribution did Corporal Eugene Bullard make to Air Force enlisted history?
Eugene Jacques Bullard was the first black pilot and fighter pilot
What significant contribution did Esther M. Blake make to Air Force enlisted history?.
Esther M. Blake has the distinction of being the 'first woman in the Air Force.'
What significant contribution did A1C John Levitow make to Air Force enlisted history?
A1C John L. Levitow became the first US Air Force enlisted member and the lowest ranking airman in history to earn the Congressional Medal of Honor
What significant contribution did CMSgt Grace Peterson make to Air Force enlisted history?
CMSgt Grace Peterson became the first woman to be promoted to the highest noncommissioned officer grade
What significant contribution did CMSgt Thomas Barnes make to Air Force enlisted history?
CMSgt Barnes became the fourth CMSAF, and the first black man to be approved to the post. He also was the only CMSAF to be twice appointed to one-year extensions
Describe the accomplishments of the Tuskegee Airmen
The country's first black fighter squadron, the 99th, was formed at Tuskegee Air Base, Alabama. Because they were so good at fighting off the Germans, they were the only escort fighters who never lost a bomber to enemy fire. Yet they damaged or destroyed 409 enemy aircraft and were responsible for the last four aerial victories of the AAF in the Mediterranean theater. The fighter group also holds the record for flying more types of fighter aircraft in combat than any other fighter unit in World War II. Their indomitable efforts culminated in 15,553 sorties and 1,578 missions by the end of the war
Define tradition
Webster's Dictionary defines tradition as 'the handing down of information, beliefs, and customs by word of mouth or by example from one generation to another without written instruction.' Traditions are an accepted way of doing things. They are inherited, established, or customary patterns of behavior
Describe how military traditions enhance professionalism and discipline
In today's Air Force, tradition plays an important role in building esprit de corps-the common spirit existing in a group or organization that builds enthusiasm, devotion, and a strong regard for the honor of the group or organization. Traditions also help develop discipline. Many of our daily activities are guided by tradition. In order not to violate these traditions, and to preserve the honor of our profession, we discipline ourselves and others to abide by them
Describe the professional airman
The professional airman is one who is not only experienced and proficient in his or her Air Force specialty, but also knows, understands, and adheres to the traditions of the profession of arms
Why is tradition important in today's Air Force?
Tradition helps build esprit de corps and discipline
What is the difference between customs and courtesies?
Customs are a result of the need for order and discipline and have been established by frequent usage over a long time. Courtesies are marks of respect, etiquette, or courteous behavior shown to persons or symbols
What is the significance of salutes?
The salute is a greeting and symbol of mutual respect among comrades in the honorable profession of arms.
Why is it important to use proper terms of address?
Because it is not only a custom of the service, but also a courteous way to address people
What is the relationship between the privilege of rank (RHIP) and responsibility?
Individuals of higher ranks not only have greater responsibility, but they also have the authority to carry out that responsibility. Privileges are often a form of partial compensation for the additional responsibility of rank. Just as you should not abuse the authority that comes with increased rank, so you should not abuse the privileges of that rank
Explain the benefits of practicing customs and courtesies
The primary benefit of customs and courtesies is self-discipline and pride. Customs and courtesies are found throughout the branches of the armed forces and they give a common bond of being members of the profession of arms
Explain how drill enhances teamwork.
Participating in parades, flag ceremonies, and other events reinforces the importance of the need for cooperation and precision on a day-to-day basis. It's impossible for one person to run the whole show. Everyone must work together to accomplish the mission. Participating as a member of an efficiently organized and operating group stimulates esprit de corps, high morale, and enthusiastic teamwork
Why should we continue to practice drill and ceremonies?
Learning how to march in formation, follow orders promptly and accurately, and depend on others results in the entire flight working together as a whole-all headed in the same direction with a common goal
What is the difference between a Dining In and a Dining Out?
Dining In is the same ceremony as a Dining Out, with the exception that the Dining Out allows non-military guests to be invited
What role do ceremonies play in the armed forces?
Ceremonies are special, formal, group activities conducted by the armed forces to honor distinguished persons or to observe national holidays. Ceremonies also demonstrate the proficiency and state of training of the troops and are an extension of drill activities.
Why is it important to formally recognize individuals for meritorious service, outstanding achievement, or heroism?
Formal recognition of our peers and subordinates shows that we appreciate their hard work and dedication and lend support for continued exceptional service or achievement
How does participating in flag ceremonies help develop esprit de corps?
Through these ceremonies, both military and civilian citizens share a common goal-to preserve all the freedoms that Americans possess today. By participating in ceremonies that inspire strong patriotic feelings, Air Force members develop a stronger sense of esprit de corps
What is the proper behavior when you are indoors and the National Anthem or To the Colors is played?
When indoors and the national anthem or To The Colors is played at the beginning or end of a program or sports activity, face the flag, or the music if the flag is not present, and go to attention. Do not salute unless under arms. When in civilian clothing, take the same action as when in uniform, except place your hand over your heart rather than giving the military hand salute
What did the flag code of 1942 do?
007: 3. In an effort to ensure our flag would always be displayed in a dignified manner, Congress passed the flag code in 1942. The flag code specified how and when the US flag would be displayed
What does the US flag represent?
When you participate in ceremonies honoring the flag, reflect on all that the flag represents-lost lives, cherished freedom, American values, and democratic principles. The ceremonies that honor the flag recognize the very fiber of American existence.
What are two reasons for the advent of uniforms?
Uniforms helped distinguish friend from foe, and to clothe the troops as cheaply as possible, colonels bought cloth in bulk and had the 'uniforms' produced from the same patterns
From where did the present Air Force uniform evolve?
From that worn by the Army Air Corps in the 1940s.
What are the three general purposes of dress and personal appearance standards?
Ensure conformity, establish standardization, and develop pride.
Who is considered the founder of the American military uniform regulations?
Fredrich von Steuben
How can you balance your responsibility to maintain an acceptable military image with your individuality?
By having a thorough understanding of the impact your dress and personal appearance have on public opinion, credibility, and effectiveness
What is the Air Force philosophy of military uniforms?
The uniform will be plain without excessive ornamentation to present a professional appearance and to keep uniform maintenance easy and inexpensive.
What are the four general standards that apply to all uniforms?
Uniforms must be clean, neat, safe, and present a military image.
How do the standards for wear of the flight cap differ between men and women?
Hair may protrude in front of the flight cap for women only.
What precautions should you take when you purchase ribbons and mounting devices?
Make sure ribbons and mounting device meet specified size and quality standards, and ribbons do not have a visible, protective coating applied.
What kinds of jewelry are authorized for wear with the uniform?
Air Force members in uniform may wear no more than three rings, a watch, and a conservative bracelet. Necklaces may be worn, but they may not be exposed at the neckline
Describe the proper length of women's service uniform skirt.
The women's skirt length is between the top and the bottom of the kneecap
When is it appropriate to wear the Battle Dress Uniform (BDU) off base?
You may wear BDUs off base for short convenience stops at shopping malls or at local food service establishments. You may NOT wear BDUs in establishments that have a primary function to sell and serve alcohol, or where people would normally wear business attire
Describe the men's grooming standards for hair.
Men must wear their hair with a tapered appearance on both sides and back, both with and without headgear. The bulk (thickness) of hair must not exceed 1-1/4 inches overall and no more than 1/4 inch at the termination point. Bangs will not touch or extend beyond the eyebrows
Describe the women's grooming standards for hair
Women's hair must present a professional appearance. It must not exceed 3 inches in bulk or prevent proper wear of the headgear. The hair must not extend below an invisible line drawn parallel to the ground at the bottom edge of the shirt collar at the back of the neck. Bangs will not touch or extend beyond the eyebrows. Additionally, only plain and conservative pins, combs, or barrettes may be worn to keep the hair in place
What are the three areas related of public opinion that can be impacted by our dress and appearance?
Public confidence in the military, perceived effectiveness of the military, and public pride in the military
Explain the general concept of how compliance with directives of dress and personal appearance can positively influence public confidence in the military
The public will assess our competence based on our appearance. If we meet standards and maintain a professional image, it is assumed that we can perform other tasks
What is the relationship between wearing the uniform properly and the public's perception of our competence?
Although appearance and conduct are not directly related to performing a task, we make assumptions about a person's competence based on their appearance.
Explain how your dress and personal appearance impact your leadership abilities?
Your effectiveness will be greatly enhanced by maintaining and exceeding the standards. Set the example for others to follow
How does relaxation of dress and personal appearance standards impact the morale in an organization?
Relaxation of the enforcement of standards makes it difficult to take pride in the unit. Diminished pride and esprit de corps lead to lower morale and, eventually, unit effectiveness
What is the result of a leader providing a positive influence for followers?
By providing the positive influence, it is easier for the leader to train subordinates on both the standards of dress and appearance and the importance of maintaining those standards
What types of decisions may be made by military personnel based on perceptions?
Military members pass judgment on our professionalism and self-discipline based on our appearance. Members of boards make decisions on awards and promotions based on perceptions
What types of decisions are made by civilian personnel based on perceptions?
Civilians form opinions about the Air Force and the US defense posture from their perceptions. Taxpayers and congressmen vote on legislation to support military programs based on their perception of military needs
Define wellness
Wellness is enjoying health and vigor of body, mind, and spirit in all areas of life. It includes our social, mental, emotional, and spiritual health, as well as our physical well being
How does our wellness contribute to the Air Force mission?
We must have people in the right place, at the right time, and those people must be physically fit and mentally alert. Excellent health, good nutrition, and proper exercise are the major keys to an alert, physically fit, fighting force
How does our lifestyle impact our level of wellness?
The habits you practice which lead to a high level of wellness contribute to your 'wellness lifestyle.' The lifestyle you lead (what and how much you eat drink, how much you exercise, whether you smoke, and how you handle stress) largely influences the development of diseases that are leading causes of death in the United States
What seven habits should you practice for a healthier lifestyle?
Not smoking, exercising regularly, sleeping 7 to 8 hours regularly, maintaining ideal weight, eating breakfast, drinking little or no alcohol, and not eating between-meal snacks
What three factors of self-responsibility will help you stay with your wellness program? Briefly describe each
Structure, motivation, and discipline. Structure provides an organized plan of attack; motivation keeps you going on your program after the newness has worn off; and discipline develops behaviors that lead to success rather than failure
Define physical fitness
Physical fitness is 'the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness without undue fatigue and with ample energy to engage in leisure-time pursuits and to meet the above average physical stress encountered in emergency situations
What are the four phases of a fitness training program?
Warm-up, aerobic, cool-down, and light weight training.
What is the purpose of aerobic exercise?
Beneficial changes occur in the heart, lungs, vascular system, and other tissues of the body. Your body becomes better able to move air into and out of the lungs, and your total blood volume increases. Your blood also becomes better equipped to transport oxygen, and your muscles become more efficient at using the oxygen they receive
What is the purpose of the cool-down phase?
A cool-down phase allows the heart rate to gradually slow down, body temperature to regulate, and waste products in muscle tissue after exercise (for example, lactic acid) to be removed effectively through the circulatory system.
What are the four principles that affect physical conditioning?
Overload, progression, regularity, and specificity.
How does dehydration affect your exercise?
If you allow yourself to become even slightly dehydrated, the amount of blood in your circulatory system decreases. This causes your heart to work much harder to supply your body with necessary fluids
What is cardio-respiratory endurance?
The ability of your heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to working muscles
How might exercise benefit the cardiovascular system?
While there is no vaccine for heart disease or hypertension, physical activity is a prudent means of enhancing health and improving the quality of one's life while also probably preventing coronary artery disease
What are the six major categories of nutrients?
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water
Why should we limit saturated fats in our diet?
Diets high in saturated fats have been shown to increase blood cholesterol and the risk of heart attack
Why do we not need to include cholesterol in our diet?
Your body naturally produces all it needs
What is the best way to get all the vitamins and minerals your body needs?
You can get needed vitamins and minerals from a well-chosen assortment of everyday foods and a balanced diet.
What habits will lead to a healthier diet?
Eat a variety of foods; eat foods with adequate starch and fiber; avoid too much fat, cholesterol, sugar, and sodium; and use alcohol in moderation
Define obesity
Obesity is usually defined as body weight that is 20 percent or more above a person's ideal weight
What is the most efficient method to achieve permanent weight loss?
Decrease calorie intake and increase calorie output
What are the effects of smoking?
Lung diseases like bronchitis and emphysema; high blood pressure; cancers of the mouth, throat, and bladder; stomach ulcers; birth defects; and common respiratory infections like colds and flu.
When does the mortality rate of an ex-smoker approach that of a person who has never smoked?
After 10 years
What causes stressful events to become a problem?
Stressful events themselves are not harmful; it is the inability to cope with too much stress that creates problems
How can stress be positive?
We all seem to work and play much better when we are under a certain amount of stress. It can serve as a motivator or initiator for activity
How does proper nutrition and exercise help you manage stress?
People who maintain proper eating habits and exercise regularly can cope with greater amounts of stress and more serious stressful events. Exercise will allow you to channel your frustrations, give you time to think things out, give you a sense of accomplishment, and actually relieve muscle tension.
What effective time management tools will help you manage stress?
Setting priorities and planning ahead
What is our senior leadership's perspective on wellness?
Wellness is absolutely essential for every service member to be ready and fit to perform anything the mission demands of us. We can accept nothing less than total fitness for total mission accomplishment
How can you be a wellness role model?
Your commitment to a high degree of wellness will provide an example for subordinates to follow. As a supervisor you need to be out in the forefront, leading the way for the members you supervise
How does your ability to think clearly as a supervisor impact the mission?
An improved state of wellness enhances your ability to think clearly and, as a result, make better decisions. The mission and the people you lead in accomplishing the mission rely upon your effectiveness in making good decisions.
How does effective stress management help us as military citizens?
We're better able to deal with stressful situations by first recognizing them and then managing our time and controlling our emotions when the situations occur.
How does exercise and fitness benefit the military citizen?
Aerobics and physical fitness increase your aerobic capacity, which enables you to work long hours and be ready to perform in a wartime situation.
How does increased muscular strength benefit the military citizen?
Increased muscular strength aids you in performing manual labor in your job and also in performing any task the Air Force might ask you to do
What was significant about the Korean Conflict with respect to POWs?
There was evidence of captors trying to indoctrinate prisoners into the enemy's way of thinking and believing
What situations in some POW camps led the United States to feel the need for an established set of guidelines for American military personnel taken prisoner?
Organization in some of the POW camps deteriorated to an every-man-for-himself situation. Morale decayed to the vanishing point. Men died for lack of leadership and discipline. Many POWs either succumbed to the wishes of the Communists or to death itself
015. Origin and evolution of the Code of Conduct
3. Why did POWs during the Vietnam War find the Code of Conduct difficult to live by?
Most POWs found it extremely difficult to live by the 'letter' of the Code. The Viet Cong exacted cruel torture on American POWs to 'persuade' them to give military information or propaganda statements. Most POWs tried to resist 'giving in' to the enemy but the more they resisted the more severe the punishment became. Most POWs realized that to survive imprisonment, they would have to abide by the 'intent' of the Code of Conduct to the best of their ability.
What was the purpose of the changes to the Code of Conduct during the Carter Administration
Changing the wording of Article V would allow a POW under torture to give more than name, rank, service number, and date of birth without loss of honor or being placed in a moral dilemma. This would enable the prisoner to quickly recover after providing information during interrogation.
What was the purpose of the Reagan Administration change to the Code of Conduct?
All references to 'man' or 'men' were removed from the Code, acknowledging the fact that both service men and women are subject to capture by enemy forces.
Describe the Code of Conduct in general terms
The Code of Conduct is a high standard of general behavior. It is a moral and ethical guide. established to assist military personnel in combat and captivity to live up to the DOD policy of survival with honor.
What is the relationship of the Code of Conduct to the Uniform Code of Military Justice?
The purpose of surviving captivity with honor does not constitute a means for judgment or replace the UCMJ as a vehicle for enforcement of proper conduct. The UCMJ continues to apply to each military member during captivity or other hostile detention
Under what circumstances should an individual or commander consider surrender?
Only when evasion by an individual is impossible and further fighting would lead only to death with no significant loss to the enemy should one consider surrender. When isolated, cut off, or surrounded, a unit must continue to fight until relieved or able to rejoin friendly forces through continued efforts to break out or evade the enemy.
Why should a service member not accept parole or special favors from the enemy (unless specifically directed by the senior American POW)?
Accepting parole or special favors undermines the morale of other POWs, breaks down the chain of command and communication within a compound, and may lead to legal action following repatriation
Why is discipline imperative in a prisoner of war camp?
Discipline is the key to camp organization, resistance, and even survival. Personal hygiene, camp sanitation, and care of the sick and wounded are imperative. Officers and noncommissioned officers of the United States must continue to carry out their responsibilities and exercise their authority in captivity
What should a POW do if he or she discloses unauthorized information under intense coercion?
That prisoner's peace of mind and survival require a quick recovery of courage, dedication, and motivation to resist anew each subsequent coercion
What are the possible consequences of signing a confession while a POW?
Any confession signed or any statement made may be used by the enemy as false evidence that the person is a 'war criminal' rather than a POW. Several countries have made reservations to the Geneva Conventions in which they assert that a 'war criminal' conviction deprives the convicted individual of prisoner of war status, removes that person from protection under the Geneva Conventions, and revokes all rights to repatriation until a prison sentence is served.
Why should service members ensure their personal affairs and family matters are properly and currently arranged?
Failure to do so can create a serious sense of guilt for a POW and place unnecessary hardship on family members
What factors have been shown to play a part in a POW's struggle to survive with honor in captivity?
Strong religious beliefs, American values, faith in country and the American people, a sound body, good communication among POWs within the camps, and open and honest sharing of feelings, fears, and dreams among the captives
How did a lack of understanding of American values impact POWs during the Korean War?
lack of understanding of American values led some POWs to make anti-American statements and freely collaborate with the enemy.
Why is communication so important in a POW camp?
Communication allows vital information to be passed among POWs and facilitates the accountability process. Communication enables the 'do's and don'ts' of prison life to be passed on to the new prisoners. This aids in the transition process and helps the new POWs avoid unnecessary torture. It was instrumental in establishing a chain of command and becomes the lifeline of the POWs.
How did American POWs benefit from open and honest sharing with one another?
Open and honest sharing of intimate feelings, fears, and dreams created a strong bond among the POWs. This sharing and concern fostered the will power for many to fight for survival from one day to the next
What is integrity?
Integrity is the willingness to do what is right even when no one is looking.
Give the characteristics of service before self
Characteristics include rule following, respect for others, discipline and self control, and faith in the system.
What does excellence in all we do mean?
Excellence in all we do tells us that military professionals must be in continual pursuit of excellence. There is no room for the 'good enough for government work' mentality in the Air Force. Good enough is never good enough. Anything less violates the sacred trust of the American people.
What perception could people get from an unprofessional relationship?
Unprofessional relationships between officers and enlisted personnel, or between enlisted personnel in the same chain of command, can result in the perception of preferential treatment or impropriety
Describe a mentor
A mentor is a trusted counselor or guide-in other words, someone with greater experience and wisdom guides another to develop personally and professionally. A mentor provides career guidance, enlisted heritage, knowledge of air and space power, and professional development. This guidance must include and reinforce Air Force core values
Define hazing
To harass or persecute with meaningless, difficult, or demeaning task; an unauthorized assumption of authority over another resulting in cruelty or humiliation
What are some examples of hazing?
Tacking on stripes with vicious enthusiasm.
New promotees running through a violent gauntlet for tacking on stripes.
PCS wash downs with fire hoses for departing members.
Flyers tack flying wings into chest with pins exposed.
Hand cuff troops to fixed objects and cover them with HAZMAT (like raspberry Jell-O).
Using peer pressure and intimidation to scare new troops.
Have new recruits kiss a nuke warhead and break glow sticks on the troop so he thinks he is contaminated
Ask new troops to go out and get 100 ft of flight line, or keys to a plane.
What are the three initiatives former Secretary of the Air Force Sheila Widnall and former USAF Chief of Staff General Ronald R. Fogleman mention that will ensure our commitment to Environmental Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH)?
Our initiatives are to sustain readiness, to be a good neighbor, and to leverage our resources.
What can you do to be responsible for your environment?
Start, or continue to recycle at home. Use recycled materials or find other uses for materials you no longer need. Carpooling is an excellent way to conserve resources and it allows you to let someone else drive once in a while. Don't over-water lawns or let water to run when not in use. Shut off lights, at home or in the office, when not in use. Turn off the television if no one is watching it. Take used motor oil to a service station that collects it for recycling or have the oil changed at a service station that will recycle it.
What is information warfare?
Information warfare is any action to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy the enemy's information and its systems while protecting against those actions and exploiting our own information operations.
What are the three objectives developed by the Air Force for information warfare?
Information warfare is any action to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy the enemy's information and its systems while protecting against those actions and exploiting our own information operations
How can you think of information warfare as it directly relates to you?
Information warfare relates directly to what you do on your job; it goes beyond a basic defense. You can think about information warfare in the dynamic terms of attacking vulnerabilities in any information system. You should think about information warfare in this way so you can build procedures for a defense
What is the duty of the office of Public Affairs?
The Office of Public Affairs is assigned the duty of disseminating official Air Force news
What is the public affairs staff responsible for?
The public affairs staff is responsible to the commander for managing a variety of products and programs: keeping the base population informed on what's happening on the installation and throughout the Air Force; organizing programs for base people to interact with local civilians; ensuring all proposed speeches, articles, and other communication on military topics are screened for security and policy considerations; and coordinating all liaison with the news media .
What capacity could you perform if you wanted to help the office of Public Affairs?
You may consider being the UPAR for your unit. Each wing public affairs staff runs a unit public affairs representative (UPAR) program. The UPAR is the organization's point of contact for public affairs activities and serves as the liaison with the base newspaper editor. This person helps arrange coverage for the unit and its people and help the commander or agency chief set up meetings to pass information to the troops.
According to AFI 36-2906, Personal Financial Responsibility, what will military members do?
The AFI states that Military Members: Will pay their just financial obligations in a proper and timely manner; Will provide adequate financial support of a spouse or child or any other relative for which the member receives additional allowances for support. Members will also comply with financial support provisions of a court order or written support agreement; Will comply with the requirements imposed by this instruction, including the requirement to respond to application for involuntary allotments of pay within the suspense dates established by DFAS or the commander.
What is a financial management program?
program that uses an established budget and credit wisely, ensures debts are properly discharged, and financial plans for the future are established
What does a budget establish?
A budget establishes what is needed to meet financial obligations, to maintain a comfortable lifestyle, and what an individual can live without.
How can you benefit by listing your needs, wants, and 'can live without' expenses?
It gives you indications of what you do, or would like to do with your money, and possible improvement areas. Depending on our needs, wants, or values there are many things we can live without to make a budget work. By careful examination of these needs, wants and values, we can develop an effective budget to help meet financial obligations and ensure we're accountable not only to those whom we owe a debt but also to our chosen profession
List the four steps in establishing a budget.
Identify values, identify income, identify expenses, and develop a budget.
What are the five rules of using credit cards?
The rules of using credit cards are (1) when possible, use credit cards only in emergencies. (2) avoid impulse buying; (3) if a credit card is used, pay off the balance as soon as possible to avoid interest charges; (4) when obtaining a credit card, shop around for a low interest rate; and (5) when paying off credit cards, pay extra money to the one with the highest interest rate while paying the minimum payment on the others.
accordance with the Manual for Court Martial, what punishment can be levied for writing checks against accounts with insufficient funds?
the procurement of any article or thing of value, with intent to defraud, in the face amount of:
$100.00 or less. Bad conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months.
More than $100.00. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years.
(2)For the payment of any past due obligation, or for any other purpose, with intent to deceive. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months.
What are some advantages of having a checking account?
Provides a safe place for money; helps manage funds; provides credit rating and keeps money organized and provides ability to monitor incoming and outgoing funds.
What are some disadvantages of having a checking account?
If the checkbook is not properly maintained and checks are written on insufficient funds. Checks can bounce resulting in overdraft charges as high as $25.00 per check, and/or a penalty charge by the business on which the check was written. Banking services such as automatic teller machine withdrawals or account drafts, paying bills by phone or various charges or fees could also complicate the use of a checking account.
According to Maj Ken Arteaga, USAFA, how much money should a person save?
At least ten percent of an individual's base pay should be put aside each month. In addition to this, at least four to six month's equivalency of a person's base pay should be set aside in case of emergencies.
Other than savings accounts, how else can you save money for the future?
Investments, certificate of deposits, money market accounts.
What will happen if you die and don't have a will?
The state will, in effect, write one after you die
How do you demonstrate the Air Force core values by preparing a will?
Demonstrating service before self and respect for others by ensuring your family is provided the necessary elements for living if you are no longer around to do so.
How does the Air Force achieve the characteristics of responsiveness and flexibility with reference to its personnel?
The Air Force must have people in the right place at the right time, ready to perform the jobs for which they are trained. Personal readiness helps the military member ensure they're able to be in the right place, at the right time, and ready to perform their jobs
What is personal readiness?
Personal readiness is the state of being, both physically and mentally, that prepares an individual to perform the duties for which they have been trained.
How does a member's responsibility to care for dependents relate to his or her responsibility to be available worldwide?
A military member's responsibility to care for legal dependents does not relieve him or her from the responsibility to be available for worldwide deployment
What is the Air Force policy on your meeting responsibilities to dependents and the Air Force.?
The Air Force sees a need for your dependents to be cared for and a need to accomplish the mission at the same time. AFI 26-2908 applies to all Air Force personnel, with special emphasis on dependent care responsibilities of single member sponsors and military couples with dependents. The AFI states that all Air Force members must make and maintain dependent care arrangements, allowing them to be worldwide available at all times
What is the key to dependent care arrangements?
Advance planning
What are the different requirements for single parents and military couples with dependents?
If the sponsor is a single parent or military married to military, they must provide documentation of who will take responsibility of their dependents. Suitable arrangements must exist for a non-military person to assume custody of the dependent(s) in the event of the members being unavailable to provide necessary care due to military obligations. If this non-military member is not in the local area of the member's duty station, a non-military person in the local area must be designated to assume temporary custody until such time as the principal designee arrives to assume custody of the dependent(s).
How does your estate plan affect your survivors?
Problems can occur if you leave your survivors unprepared. Without an estate plan, your survivors will have to make sensitive decisions during a highly emotional time. With an estate plan, you can reduce their burdens, ensure their well-being, and have your estate handled in accordance with your wishes.
What should you discuss with your family concerning your estate plan?
You should educate your family on benefits they're entitled to and how to get casualty assistance from the Air Force. Tell a responsible member of your family that if you die while on active duty, and particularly as a result of performing your military duties, your survivors could receive benefits, and let them know who to contact to get them
What should you include in your estate plans
Your will, DD Form 93, records and documents and a personal affairs record.
How does our personal fitness impact our public image?
The American public and its elected representatives draw certain conclusions about military effectiveness based on the image presented by Air Force members. There must be no doubt that service members live by a common standard and are responsive to military order and discipline. Poor physical fitness and obesity detract from this image.
Who is responsible for maintaining the physical fitness of our personnel?
It is every individual's responsibility to establish and maintain a physical fitness program.
What is the commander's responsibility in the weight management program?
It is the unit commander's responsibility to identify, counsel, and refer for medical evaluation personnel who exceed their maximum allowable weight and/or body fat percentage.
What is the definition of doctrine?
Doctrine is a statement of officially sanctioned beliefs and warfighting principles that describe and guide the proper use of air and space forces in military operations. It is what we have come to understand about war, based on our experience to date.
Who does the Air Force Doctrine Document apply to?
The Air Force Doctrine Documents apply to all active duty, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve, and civilian Air Force personnel.
What is AFDD 1?
The Air Force Basic Doctrine, AFDD 1, addresses the capabilities of using Air Force assets in all levels of war, strategic, operational, and tactical, to accomplish the missions assigned by National Command Authorities (NCA).
What are the three levels of air and space doctrine
The Air Force places air and space doctrine at different levels and depths of detail in the forms of basic, operational, and tactical doctrine
What does AFDD 1 establish?
AFDD 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine, establishes general doctrinal guidance for the application of air and space forces in operations across the full range of military operations from global nuclear or conventional warfare to military operations other than war (MOOTW).
What does basic and operational doctrine provide focus for?
For developing the missions and tasks that must be executed through tactical doctrine
What are the three types of doctrine?
Service Doctrines, Joint Doctrine, and Multinational Doctrine
What does joint doctrine describe?
Joint doctrine describes the best way to integrate and employ air and space forces with land and naval forces in military action
Define strategy?
The art and science of developing and using political, economic, psychological, and military forces as necessary during peace and war, to afford the maximum support to policies, in order to increase the probabilities and favorable consequences of victory and to lesson the chances of defeat.
What is the difference between doctrine and strategy?
Military doctrine describes how a job should be done to accomplish military goals; strategy defines how it will be done to accomplish national political objectives. Strategy originates in policy and addresses broad objectives and the plans for achieving them. Doctrine evolves from military theory and experience and addresses how best to use military power
What are the three fundamental truths about the nature of war?
War is an instrument of national policy. War is a complex and chaotic human endeavor. War is a clash of opposing wills.
Describe the employment of air and space power
The US Air Force employs air and space power globally through basic functions to achieve strategic, operations, and tactical level objectives in war and military operations other than war.
According to the Department of Defense Directive, the US Air Force is the only service directed to perform what role in defense?
Organize, train, equip, and provide forces for both the conduct of prompt sustained combat operation in air and for strategic missile warfare
List the functions of air and space power.
Counterair, Counterspace, Counterland, Countersea, Strategic Attack, Counterinformation, Command & Control, Airlift, Air Refueling, Spacelift, Special Operations Employment, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Combat Search & Rescue, Navigation & Positioning, and Weather Services
Describe offensive counter air
It is the most effective and efficient method for achieving the appropriate degree of Air superiority. The function consists of operations to destroy, neutralize, disrupt, or limit enemy air and missile power as close to the source as possible and at a specific place and time
Interdiction is what form of maneuver?
Air maneuver
What is MOOTW?
MOOTW are military actions not associated with sustained, large-scale combat operations
What is the goal of MOOTW
The overall goal of MOOTW is to pursue US national policy initiatives and to counter potential threats to US national security interests
List three types of operations that would be considered MOOTW
Any three of the following: Enforcement of Sanctions; Enforcing Exclusion Zones; Protection of Shipping; Strikes and Raids; Combating Terrorism; Counterdrug Operations; Ensuring Freedom of Navigation; Noncombatant Evacuation Operations; Peace Operations; Recovery Operations; Arms Control Support; Domestic Support Operations; foreign Humanitarian Assistance; Nation Assistance; Show of Forces; or Support to Insurgency
Why is aerospace power essential to show of force operations?
Aerospace power often is the only instrument of military power with the speed to respond globally to demonstrate US resolve
How is war categorized?
War is a multidimensional activity, which can be categorized in various ways: by intensity (low to high); by duration (short or protracted); by the means employed (conventional, unconventional, nuclear); or by the objectives/resources at stake (general or limited war). Warfare is normally associated with the different mediums of air, land, sea, and space
Why is air superiority a prerequisite for all other combat operations?
We must have air superiority to provide both the freedom to attack and freedom from attack. Air superiority can be localized (e.g., protection of high value assets) or theaterwide as it was during Desert Storm. It includes both offensive and defensive missions and involves the destruction of enemy aircraft and ballistic and cruise missiles, both in flight and on the ground. In a war, we must take the offensive position that will allow us to choose the time and place of the attack instead of waiting for an attack and having to defend ourselves.
What is the advantage of using aerospace power to create disruption?
Disruption causes delays, disorder and confusion, and destroys unit cohesion. It makes the enemy far more vulnerable to follow-on attacks by all types of forces. Attacking enemy command and control facilities could also lead to disruption of the enemy's ability to control his forces or to gain intelligence about our own operations
Specify the three basic levels of war.
Strategic, Operational, Tactical
Describe the strategic level of warfare
Strategic - addresses the why we fight, the what we fight, and the why the enemy fights against us.
Describe the operational level of warfare.
Operational - links war tactics and strategy by establishing operational objectives to achieve strategic objectives
Describe the tactical level of warfare
Tactical - deals with how the forces are employed, and specifies how engagements are conducted and targets attacked.
Define maneuver
Maneuver involves such issues as Expeditionary Task forces, airlift, command and control, and orbital access.
What are the three dimensions of maneuver?
Surface, air and space
Specify the principles of war
Unity of command, objective, offensive, mass, maneuver, economy of force, security, surprise, and simplicity
Define the primary principles of war
Guidelines that commanders can use to form and select a course of action.
How does air and space power differ form land and sea forces?
Both air and space power involve operations in all three dimensions
Describe air and space power
Air and space power is considered flexible and versatile.
Identify and describe the core competencies at the heart of Air Force strategic perspectives.
. The core competencies are:
Air and space superiority- Air and space superiority rarely is an end in itself but is a means to the end of attaining military objectives. It is an important first step in military operations. It provides freedom to attack as well as freedom from attack.
Precision engagement- Precision engagement is the ability to command, control, and employ forces to cause discriminate strategic, operational, or tactical effects.
Information superiority- Information superiority is the ability to collect, control, exploit, and defend information while denying an adversary the ability to do the same and, like air and space superiority, includes gaining control over the information realm and fully exploiting military information functions. Information superiority was the first function of the Air Force.
Global attack-Global attack provides the Air Force with the unique ability to attack rapidly and persistently with a wide range of munitions anywhere on the globe at any time.
Rapid global mobility-Rapid global mobility refers to the timely movement, positioning, and sustainment of military forces and capabilities through air and space, across the range of military operations.
Agile combat support-Agile combat support provides the Air Force with highly responsive force support that is poised to respond to global taskings within hours and also support that force with equal facility. This includes all elements of a forward base-support structure- maintenance, supply, transportation, communications, services, engineering, security, medical, and religious..
Identify the four basic forms of command relationships
Combat control, operational control, tactical control, and support and administrative control..
List the chain of command from the National Command Authority downward.
The administrative chain of command flows from the National Command Authority through the Secretary of the Air Force to the Chief of Staff of the Air Force to the Major Commands, then to the Numbered Air Force Commanders.
For what purpose is the Air Force organized?
For wartime and global capabilities
List two central issues which govern the way the Air Force is organized.
The principle of unity of command and the tenet of centralized control and decentralized execution
Why is it important to understand Air Force organizational terms and structure?
Because war is waged and airpower employed through and by organizations.
When defining a task, what is meant by discrete
Discrete means that a task will only be listed once although the relationships between a particular task and multiple other tasks may be complex (i.e., one task supports or enables other tasks
List and explain two types of tasks?
1) A mission essential task (MET) is a task selected or expanded on from the AFTL as a fundamental requisite for the performance or accomplishment of an organization's assigned mission. An organization should have a limited number of METs. While all tasks performed in the Air Force are important, most are performed to support or enable the essential tasks that are the reasons each particular organization exists. Keeping that in mind, it is possible to narrow down the list of METs to only those tasks that represent the indispensable tasks to that particular organization. A MET includes not only the task but also associated conditions and measures.
(2) A supporting task does just what the title says, it supports. A supporting task is specific activity that contributes to the accomplishment of a mission essential task. Supporting tasks are accomplished at the same command level or by subordinate elements of a force. For example, a fighter wing may select AFT 1.1.1.2 Conduct Defensive Counterair as a MET. That task is supported by AFT 2.1.1 Perform Lethal Precision Engagement, AFT 7 Provide Command and Control, AFT 6.1.1.9.1 Perform Unit Level Maintenance, AFT 6.3.1.6 Provide Operations Support, and a host of more detailed tasks performed within the wing. While those tasks are arguably 'essential' to the accomplishment of AFT 1.1.1.2, they are not descriptors of the mission essential tasks of a wing.
(3) An enabling task is specific activity that makes it possible to accomplish a mission essential task. Successful completion of an enabling task does not guarantee the accomplishment of a MET; however, unsuccessful completion will most assuredly result in failing to accomplish the MET. The enabling task concept shows the relationship of the tasks as a 'house of cards.' The failure to accomplish many of the capability tasks in AFT 6 Provide Agile Combat Support and AFT 3 Provide Information Superiority will result in the failure of most of the subordinate tasks in AFT 1 Provide Air and Space Superiority, AFT 2 Provide Precision Engagement, AFT 4 Provide Global Attack, and AFT 5 Provide Rapid Global Mobility. For example, failure to accomplish AFT 5.1.2 Educate and Train Airlift Operations Forces, AFT 6.2.1 Protect the Force, or AFT 6.5.1.3 Perform Air Mobility Support, will eventually prevent the acceptable accomplishment of AFT 5.1.1 Perform Airlift. Another example: failure to accomplish AFT 6.1.1.12 Recruit and Access a Quality Force, most assuredly will result in the eventual failure to accomplish any of the tasks throughout the AFTL. If all enabling tasks were listed as METs in each organization, the list would become excessively long, unmanageable, and thereby of little or no utility to the organization.
(4) The joint training environment uses command-linked tasks to depict the interface between supported and supporting commands and agencies. These tasks are key to accomplishing supported command or agency joint mission essential tasks (JMETs). The supported commander normally designates and assesses the command-linked tasks. The command performing the task normally evaluates task accomplishment. Close coordination and communication are required between supported and supporting commands.
How are the Air Force tasks organized?
Air Force Tasks are organized as core tasks, capability tasks, tasks that provide capabilities and performance tasks. The core tasks are numbered 1-7 and directly relate to our core competencies. The capability tasks enable the core tasks. A task that provides capabilities describes the capability in 4 aspects: Perform, Educate and Train, Equip, and Plan. The performance tasks are broken down further where greater detail is required to organize a capability composed of wide ranging specialties.
What is the first thing you have to understand before you establish your Mission Essential Tasks?
You must understand your mission and the tasks that are essential to mission accomplishment.
Explain the conditions identified in Step 2 of developing a MET?
Conditions are those variables of an operational environment that may affect unit, system, or individual performance. Conditions are those variables of an operational environment or situation in which a unit, system, or individual is expected to operate that may affect effectiveness. Conditions are organized into three broad categories: Physical (1.0), Military (2.0), and Civil (3.0).
List and explain the types of assurance commanders need to ensure their unit can perform its mission?
Operational Assurance-Operational assessments (e.g., ORI, tac eval) are invaluable as an independent, third party verification of unit capability. These assessments give commanders a critical and unique level of confidence that subordinate units are mission capable. In this sense, the operational assessment will continue as an integral part of the Air Force's overall assurance system.
Compliance Assurance-Compliance assurance (e.g., stan eval, nuclear surety, safety) is necessary to ensure we, as an institution, comply with established standards-a prime example being Nuclear Surety Inspections. The Air Force Strategic Plan, volume 2, addresses the directives governing compliance assurance.
Task Assurance-The third component of assurance will indicate units' progress on meeting standards reflected in established METs. The Air Force Strategic Plan, volume 2, provides greater detail concerning the conduct, reporting, and utility of the task assurance process.
Describe the changes the military went through after the Cold War?
After the Cold War, we worked downsizing our force, the requirement to maintain readiness, and respond to the new missions all around the world
What research was accomplished during the development of Global Engagement?
There were two major studies conducted by Air University. The 'SPACE CAST 2020' study looked at how the space arena would evolve and what new missions and applications for space power might develop over the next 25 years. The 'Air Force 2025' study tried to determine how the world might look in the future. The Air Force Scientific Advisory Board conducted another study that looked at where technology is going over the next two decades and the ideas that would be beneficial for the Air Force to pursue
Who was on the board of directors for the development of the new vision?
The group included key Air Force leaders, the assistant secretaries, the functional managers of the air staff (three-star generals), all major command vice commanders, and the guard and reserve commanders
What are the four basic trends considered in Joint Vision 2010?
Technologies in our military arsenal are widely available and affordable; contingencies are more complex and numerous than ever before; the military must be prepared for short-notice actions; and continued deficit reduction efforts will result in greatly reduced operating budgets.
How does air and space power relate to Joint Vision 2010?
The air and space thread runs throughout the new vision. Joint Vision 2010 provides an opportunity for the Air Force to demonstrate the combat power and utility of air and space power to the Joint Force Commander. Like Global Engagement, Joint Vision 2010 emphasizes long term and strategic planning. The vision provides a way to think about joint warfare of the future, and it depends on and highlights the contributions of air power for success.
Global Engagement is based on six core competencies and four central themes. What are the central themes?
The four central themes are integration of air and space; airmen of tomorrow; commitment to innovation; and increase efficiency through outsourcing and privatization
Under the theme of airmen of the future, what is the airman expected to be like?
The airman will remain our highest priority. The airman of the future will know what is expected, be skilled at their jobs and understand the basic premise of our air and space power doctrine, capabilities and contributions to the joint force.
What is the benefit of evaluating a new strategic vision with war games?
A war game places the players in a situation and allows them to explore issues when they may not have complete information. This arena offers great potential for the application of concepts within our strategy to increase efficiency, as well as the productivity of the entire joint team.
What is unique about the Air National Guard?
The National Guard is unique in that it fulfills both federal and state missions
List some examples of Air National Guard missions
Fighter interceptor force, reconnaissance force, and tactical air support
To whom does an ANG unit report?
ANG units report to the National Guard Bureau as an administrative command and to the functional command that they are gained under (ACC) or the AEF they are assigned to
What are some of the reserve missions?
Airborne fire fighting, airlift capability, and fighter forces, aero- medical evacuation crews, combat logistics support squadrons, and aerial port crews.
What major command does the Air Force Reserve fall under?
AFRC
What is the Army's fundamental purpose?
fight and win the Nation's wars by establishing the conditions for lasting peace through land force dominance.
List one advantage of Naval force
Naval forces can suddenly appear on the horizon of most countries of the world, signal presence and power, then withdraw beyond the horizon again. Naval force can be applied with precision and overwhelming firepower and maintain flexibility and mobility despite restricted access to overseas bases.
What is the top priority of the Marine Corps?
The Marine Corps top priority is readiness.
List two of the unified commands.
Any two of the following: US European Command, US Pacific Command, US Central Command, US Space Command, US Special Operations Command, US Transportation Command, and US Strategic Command
How was the Air Force structured to support operations after the Cold War?
As a garrison force, we positioned forces in mass at large stateside and overseas locations.
List two examples of the military acting as an expeditionary force before we introduced the EAF
One of the first uses of an expeditionary force occurred in the year of 1916 during the pursuit of Pancho Villa in Mexico.
During World War I, the United States used an expeditionary force to fight in Europe against German forces.
In World War II this type of force package was used to fight Axis forces threatening the safety and security of Europe and the Pacific.
During the 1950s, we engaged in a form of expeditionary air warfare to fight against communist forces invading Korea and threatening the democratic government of South Korea.
In the 1960s, communist forces again threatened the security of the government of South Vietnam. The United States answered with a force of an expeditionary nature to attack communist forces in North Vietnam. Units from the United States rotated annually in and out of South Vietnam to ensure the invading forces were held at bay.
What is the mission of the EAF?
043: 3. The vision of the Expeditionary Aerospace Force (EAF) is to organize, train, equip, deploy and sustain itself in the dynamic 21st century global security environment. It will require a change in the methods used for training, equipping, deploying, and sustaining our forces to meet these new challenges.
How will the EAF benefit our OPSTEMPO and PERSTEMPO situations?
The EAF allows us to adapt quickly to the current demands for aerospace forces. Deployments are on a scheduled basis to allow people to maintain combat readiness and a better quality of life. We can determine when that force is stressed and where relief should be focused. It provides units, people, their families, and employers for the ARC components, greater deployment stability and predictability. By using total force and distributing deployment support requirements through the ARC components, we relieve some active duty personnel from deployments.
Explain how the AEF cycle will work?
The EAF will operate on a 15-month deployment lifecycle for each AEF. For example, AEF 1 and 2 will be on call for contingencies for 90 days. After that 90-day time frame, they will begin to stand down while AEF 3 and 4 go into their 90-day on call window. AEF 1 and 2 will remain in a normal training phase for the next 9 or 10 months. Approximately 60 days before their on call window starts, they will begin to 'spin-up' and prepare for deployments.
What are the actually deployable assets in the AEF, and how do they fit into a joint operation chain of command?
The actual deployable units are the Aerospace Expeditionary Wings (AEW), Groups (AEG) or Squadrons (AES), which deploy with tactical level command. When deployed, the chain of command for the wings, groups or squadrons will be incorporated into joint command structures, normally as an Aerospace Expeditionary Task Force (ASETF), under the command of the COMAFFOR.
What are Mobility Lead Wings?
Five wings that are paired to the AEFs. They provide expeditionary leadership and airlift expertise. Their job is to move the AEFs and support them throughout that move. They will also respond to operations such as humanitarian relief, disaster response and non-combatant evacuation operations.
What is the purpose of the Aerospace Expeditionary Force Center
The Center is are responsible for AEF/AEW management. The AEFC provides continuity; identifies training requirements; guides AEF/AEW planning; and monitors the readiness levels of the AEFs. It is the primary point of contact for the AEFs. It can assist and participate in and enhance deliberate and crisis planning.