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79 Cards in this Set

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Electron orbits in the electron cloud are restrictive to very specific what?
Radii and energies
Electron Orbits: Are all the electron energies different for each individual element?
Yes
Doppler Effect: What does the color blue mean?
Something is coming closer or is close
Doppler Effect: What does the color red mean?
Something is moving farther away or is far away
Are comets rocky or icy?
Icey
What is outside of the nucleus in a comet?
The coma
Define: Coma (in a comet)
The gases around the nucleus
In a comet, what is the nucleus made of
Mainly ice. But there is also CO, Co2 in it.
Where does a meteor shower come from?
Comet fragments
What is the Kuiper belt?
A group of short period comets that come through the solar system regularly and only along the plane of the ecliptic -- extension of the eclipticp lane
The Kuiper belt is considered to be what?
The source of short period comets
What are the two types of tails of a comet?
Type 1: Ionized Gas
*Effected by solar wind
*Gases from the coma
Type 2: dust grains
*Heavier than the Ionized
Gas
Moon: What is the daytime temperature?
130 degrees centigrade
What is the cause for the dark regions on the moon?
Lava fills up the craters
Where are the Vesicular Basalts common?
In the Lunar Highlands
Moon Rocks: What is a Vesicular Basalt?
It contains holes from gas bubbles in the lava, basalts, this is typical of dark rocks found in maria.
What is a Breccias?
It is a Fragment of different types of rocks cemented together. It also contains anorthosites (bright, low density rocks typical in the highlands)
Moon: The lunar Maria has a lot of what?
Lava flows
What is common in the Lunar highlands?
The Vesicular Basalts
What is older, the Lunar highlands or the Lunar Maria?
The Lunar Highlands is older. The Lunar Maria is young.
Maria ______ almost tore the moon apart
Embria
What causes erosion on the moon?
Micrometeorite impact, since there are no winds nothing really changes on the moon very often.
What do the moon craters show us?
The history of creation
Where did the lava come from during the Formation of Maria?
The Lunar Mantle
Where is the Mantle in relation to the Core and the crust?
In the middle
Is the meteor that caused the crater in Arizona possibly caused the extinction of the Dinosaurs?
No
What crater might have a connection with the extinction of the dinosaurs?
The Chicxulb crater
How wide is the Tycho moon crater?
85 km
What is the penumbra?
The larger and lighter shadow caused by planets. Causes a 'partial' eclipse
What is the umbra?
The 'ultimate' shadow. A tiny dot that sits in the middle of the penumbra
When does a lunar eclipse occur?
When the moon passes in Earth's shadow
Whats more common, Solar or Lunar eclipses?
Lunar eclipses
During a total eclipse, why does it have a more red tint?
Because the blue is scattered
Is the umbra a tiny or large?
tiny
When do you see a partial eclipse?
When you are in the penumbra --'p for partial!'
On what eclipse do you see a silver corona?
A total eclipse
During an eclipse, does the sun and the moon have the same diameter?
Only during a total eclipse
What is the apogee?
The position furthest away from the earth
What is the perigee?
The position closest to the earth
What is the perihelion?
The closest part to the sun
What is the aphelion?
The furthest point from the sun.
During an annular solar eclipse, is the earth usually far away or close to the moon?
Far away
Why are eclipses going to end?
Because the radius of the moons orbit is getting farther and farther away.
What is the line of nodes?
It is the intersection of hte plane of the moon's orbit and the ecliptic
How many times a year to eclipses occur?
Twice a year during the eclipse season. This is when the line of nodes points toward the sun
What is a pressure wave? (p-wave)
When the particles vibrate back and forth -- compression
What is a sheer wave? (s-wave)
When the particles vibrate up and down.
Which wave (p-wave or s-wave) cannot pass through liquid?
The sheer wave (s-wave)
Define: Mafic
High concentration of metals
What wave is used to tell whether or not the earth's interior is liquid or not?
P-waves (pressure waves)
What is a solar wind composed of (Electrons, protons or/and neutrons)
Electrons and protons
What does earth's magnetic field protect us from?
The earth's magnetic field protects Earth from high energy particles coming from the sun and solar wind
What generates Earth's magnetic field?
Iron and nickel create high electrical conductivity which generate a magnetic field
What is Earth's core made out of ?
Iron and Nickel
What do the Van Allen belts generate? What did they create because of this?
The Van Allen belts generate a lot of radiation. Because of this, they created the Aurora.
Doppler effect: Is blue a high frequency or a low frequency?
High frequency
When stars are moving away, is this a blueshift or a redshift?
a red shift
How are we able to detect extra solar planets?
Due to the doppler wobble
What is the doppler wobble?
When a star wobbles around a planet. It is used to detet extra solar planets
Are comets Icy or rocky?
Icey
Are asteroids rocky or icy?
Rocky
What is the largest documented comet and how large?
Ceres - 1000 kilometers
How many cataloged asteroids are there?
Over 11,000
What is the likely hood of these cataloged asteroides hitting us?
No likelyhood
Meteoride: What is it?
A small body in space.
Does earth provide protection against a meteor/meteorite?
No, anything larger than a basketball can get through
Define: Amor
Grazes earth's orbit. There is no threat for impact
Define: Aros
When a meteorite comes to the perihelion.
Define all these colors:
M-type
C-type
and S-type
M-type: metal rich
c-type: carbon rich
s-type: silicate rich
What are the 3 types of meteorites? What are they made up of?
Iron;
Stony iron, 50% stone, 50% iron;
Stony - 25% iron, rest stone
What is a carbonaceous chondrite?
Left over tiny bits of rock that formed when the solar system was formed. Most pristene of rocky materials that went into planets
Two types of impact velocites:
Slow and fast
Impact velocity: How does a slow impact work?
When an astroid or comet catch up to earth or vise versa. PROGRADE MOTION
Impact velocity: How does a fast impact work?
When a retrograde and a prograde object hit
What belt does pluto come from?
The kuiper belt
What is titdal coupling?
The moon constanly rotates with the same face twoards earth. --Rotation is 28 days.
define: Continental crust
Felic compostion, rich in silica, made up of rocks, oxygen and aluminum
How fast do plates move?
2-18 feet
Where are strato volcanoes usually found?
Along the subduction zones