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29 Cards in this Set

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The art of sound reasoning/ argumentation
Argument involving BOTH logic and rhetoric
This argument has a necessary conclusion.
Valid when it is impossible for the premise(s) to be true and the conclusion false. In this sense, the premise(s) guarantee the truth of the conclusion.
A process of reasoning from one principle to another by means of accepted rules of inference. A conclusion follows necessarily from the premises, and so if you are certain of the premises, you can be certain of the conclusion, too.
Deductive
This argument has only a highly probable conclusion.
The conclusion always states more than the premises.
A process of reasoning in which the characteristics of an entire class or set of things is inferred on the basis of an acquaintance with some of its members. Although the conclusion is supported by the premises, it does not follow necessarily from the premises and its truth is not guaranteed by them.
Inductive
When an argument is sound
The premises are true and the argument is valid
When an argument is unsound
One or more of the premises are false or the argument is invalid
This is an argument that appears to be sound but is unsound.
An apparently persuasive argument that is really an error in reasoning; an unsound or invalid argument.
Fallacy
A fallacy using personal attacks.
An argument against the person instead of the position; for example, attaching a philosopher's living habits instead of asking whether or not his theories are true.
Ad Hominem
Proving an argument by its initial assumption.
The principle or one of those principles upon which an argument is based. The starting point of an argument.
Premise
Using a word with more than one meaning.
A fallacy based on the use of the same term in different senses, esp as the middle term of a syllogism, as the badger lives in the bank, and the bank is in the High Street, so the badger lives in the High Street.
Equivocation (fallacy)
Proving A by B, B by C, and C by A is this kind of fallacy
Begging the question or "vicious circle" (fallacy)
Belief in the existence of an impersonal god
Deism
Belief in the presence of a personal god.
Believes in a single, independent Being, God, who is the Creator of the universe
Theism
No belief in the existence of god/s.
Believers refuse to believe in God.
Atheism
Neither belief nor disbelief in the existence of god/s.
Believers admit ignorance, and simply accept the fact that they do not know and perhaps have no way of knowing whether there is such a being or not.
Agnosticism
Proof of God's existence based on the very definition of "God".
An argument (or set of arguments) that tries to "prove" the existence of God from the very concept of "God". For example, "God", by definition, is that being with all possible perfection; existence is a perfection; therefore, God exists.
Ontological
Proof of God's existence based on experience of the world.
An argument (or set of arguments) that undertakes to "prove" that God exists on the basis of the idea that there must have been a first cause or ultimate reason for the existence of the universe (the cosmos)
Cosmological
Proof of God's existence based on perceived purpose of the universe.
An argument that attempts to "prove" that God exists because of the intracy and "design" of nature. It is sometimes called the "argument from design", since the basis of the argument is that since the universe is evidently designed, it must have a designer. The analogy most often used is our inference from finding a complex mechanism on the beach (for example, a watch) that some intelligent being must have created it.
Teleological
Explaining/ describing the unfamiliar images as a comparison.
A form of inductive argument that is sometimes controversial; defends the similarity between some aspect of two things on the basis of their similarity in other respects.
Analogy
Author of the ontological proof
St. Anselm
Author of the cosmological proof
St. Thomas Aquinas
Concerns those reasons that should hold for anyone, anywhere, without appealing to personal feelings, sympathies, or prejudices.
The study of the rules of valid inference and "rational argument". In general, a sense of order.
Logic
Component of an argument that involves personal appeals. The persuasive use of language to convince other people to accept your beliefs.
Rhetoric
What is the difference between "logic" and "rhetoric"?
Logic has no emotion involved and is impersonal. Rhetoric combines logic and emotion and is personal.
What formula do you use to show the validity or invalidity of a conclusion?
If A=B and C=A, then C=B. The conclusion is valid.
What do the proofs of God's existence actually prove?
Because God has all the perfections and existence is perfection, then God exists.
Explains Pascal's Wager
If we believe and God exists, then there is an eternal reward.
If we believe and God doesn't exist, we've wasted a little piety but perhaps have been better people.
If we don't believe and God exists, then there is eternal damnation.
If we don't believe and God doesn't exist, then we receive no reward and no punishment.
Believing in something for which you have inadequate evidence or little good reason. In theology, it usually refers to the trust that a believer should have in God's ultimate grace and fairness. Sometimes, it is defended as a rational belief in God. More often, it is defended against rationality.
Belief that is not based on proof.
Faith
An expression of one's faith.
A set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs.
Religion
What is the difference between "faith" and "religion"?
Faith is the values in depth of one's consciousness. Religion is just an expression of faith. Personally, faith is based on what you believe in your heart, whereas religion is what you do to show that you have faith.