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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How may microorganisms adapt to their host?
a bacterial capsule may prevent attachment to host macrophages.
The cell wall may resist digestion and may contain endotoxins, toxic lipopolysaccharides of Gram neg organisms particularly.
bacteria may secrete exotoxins some of which can damage phagocytic cells; others(aggressins) alter the environment in a way that promotes spread of bacteria.
deficiency in phagocytic cells and complement will cause susceptibility to bacterial infections since phagocytic cells and complement are the first line defense against bacteria. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Since complement is important in the removal of immune complexes, patients with complement deficits may develop diseases of immune complex deposition, with vasculitis, nephritis and arthritis.
What is leukocyte adhesion deficiency?
defective leukocyte function results in increased susceptibility to infection.
What is Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
It is a hereditary disorder of lysosomes that affects neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and other kinds and other cells, resulting in infections, and hemorrhage(platelet) neurologic involvement and albinism.
Individuals with T cell deficiencies are open to many infections but still may be able to handle microbes with polysaccharide antigens. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Defense against polysaccharide antigens involves antibody that is T cell independent.
Increased complement activity may also occur when feedback inhibitory components of the complement cascade are deficient. TRUE/FALSE
In hereditary angioneurotic edema there are attacks of skin and mucosal(laryngeal) membrane edema from excessive complement activity.
What happens paroxysmal nocturnal hematuria?
RBCs are usually susceptible to complement lysis because the normal proteins that help prevent this are missing.
What is the Schwartzman reaction?
There is an overreactive response to microbes; bacterial endotoxin(LPS) induces the production of tumor necrosis factor(TNF) in phagocytes. TNF causes in excess myocardial contractility, vascular blood coagulation, poor tissue perfusion and shock(endotoxin).
What is type 1- type 1V reactions?
Type 1- IgE hypersensitivity
Type 11- IgG/IgM
Type 111- antibody-antigen complex reactions
Type1V-T helper or T cytotoxic cells in cell mediated immunity.
What causes Type 1 reactions/
(pollen allergy) are acute reactions mediated by IgE. IgE attaches to Fc receptors on blood basophils and tissue mast cells. When this occurs with cross linking of the antigen with IgE, the mast cell(or basophil) degranulates releasing vasoactive substances. This can demonstrate as a rash or anaphylactic shock with hypotension and bronchiolar spasm.
Type 1 is the most common form of hypersensitivity. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. It can flair up in minutes.
What are type 11 reactions?
Blood transfusion reactions, autoimmune disease, transplant rejection by antibodies are mediated by IgG and IgM.
List 10 type 11 related diseases.
1. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
2. Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura
3. Diabetes mellitus
4. resistant ovary syndrome
5. Goodpastures syndrome
6. Grave's disease
7. Myasthenia gravis
8. Pemphigus
9. Pernicious anemia
10. Rheumatic fever
What is resistant ovary syndrome?
The ovary fails to respond to hormonal stimulation because of autoantibodies against hormone receptors in the ovary.
What is Goodpatures syndrome/
Autoantibodies to collagen in renal glomeruli and lung alveoli result in nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhages.
What is Grave's disease/
Autoantibodies to TSH receptors on thyroid cells have a stimulatory effect on thyroid production, causing hyperthyroidism.
What is pemphigus?
Autoantibodies to epidermal proteins cause skin and mucus membrane blistering.
Rheumatic fever may be associated with streptococcal pharyngitis. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Unlike post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever does not involve the kidney but does cause, fever, migratory polyarthritis and occasionally carditis.
What is Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia?
There is excess production of monoclonal IgM, coinciding with the anemia and bone marrow infiltration from abnormal, proliferating lymphocytes and plasma cells.
Excess IgM may cause hyperviscosity of the blood.
What is Multiple myeloma?
It is a plasma cell tumor that invades bone. In addition to hypercalcemia from marrow destruction, there is increased production of monoclonal antibody(usually IgG) and excess production of antibody light chains. These light chains may filter through the kidney and are detectable on urine testing(Bence- Jones protein).
List some type 111 reactions.
chronic glomerulonephritis
serum sickness
rheumatoid arthritis
Arthus' reaction.
These are mediated by antigen/antibody complexes.
What initiates tissue damage in type 111 reactions?
Unphagocytosed antigen/antibody complexes may settle in tissues and excessively activate.
The activated complement in turn activates neutrophils and macrophages to produce tissue destructive lytic enzymes and phagocytose host cells.
Neutrophils and macrophages can also be activated directly by immune complexes without the assistance of complement. TRUE/FALSE
What is serum sickness?
When the immune complex forms in the blood stream, as in the infusion of foriegn serum.
What is the Arthus reaction?
It is a localized form of immune complex hypersensitivity.
List 4 type 111 reactions?
1. Polyarteritis nodosa
2. post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
3. Rheumatoid arthritis
4. Systemic lupus erythematosis
What is post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?
An immune complex of antigens from the streptococcal wall with antibody to them results in glomerulonephritis.
What is Rheumatoid arthritis?
This condition may involve IgM autoantibodies(rheumatoid factors) to IgG.
What is systemic lupus erythematosis?
Autoantibodies to DNA and nucleoproteins result in vasculitis, nephritis, and arthritis, among other things.
What are type 1V reactions?
Graft rejection, contact sensitivity, tbc response are cell mediated reactions.
damage may be caused by cytokines released from T helper cells, by activated T cytotoxic cells, or by antibody production that is indirectly stimulated by T cell interaction with B cells.
cell mediated hypersensitivity reactions take longer than antibody-mediated reactions, often hours or days, the delay being due to the time required to mobilize cells through the T cell chain of interactions. TRUE/FALSE
What exactly is contact sensitivity?
Skin Langherhans cells respond to antigen on the skin and initiate a T helper response. An eczematous rash may appear 1-2 days later.
What is tuberculin skin testing?
This is another example of delayed hypersensitivity due to cell mediated reactions. Tbc antigen is injected intradermally, and aclassic reaction in a person who has been exposed to tbc, develops 48-72 hrs later in the form of an indurated reactive area in the skin.
What is the pathogenesis of tuberculosis?
Cell mediated immunity attempts to eliminate the tbc bacillus by activating macrophages, which ingest the bacilli.
If the bacilli remain alive, the body may attempt a chronic inflammatory response, walling off the affected cells in damaging granulomas, in the lungs and elsewhere.
sarcoidosis(nodules in lungs, eyes skin, Chgron's disease and ulcerative colitis and temporal arteritis are other examples of granulomatous diseases that are believed to involve cell mediate immunity. TRUE/FALSE
List several non-granulomatous diseases that may have an origen in cell mediated immune responses?
Multiple sclerosis
Myasthenia gravis(occasionally
Grave's disease
Viral myocarditis
is autoimmunity always against host cells?
A foriegn antigen, virus or drug attaches to the host cell. The immune response is against the foreign antigen, and in the process kills the host cell too.
What is polyclonal activation?
certain antigens(bacterial lipopolysaccharide) can induce a generalized clonal proliferation of B cells(polyclonal activation) including the small population of self reacting B cells that otherwise would be insufficient in number to mount an autoimmune response.
Why do certain ocular injuries require removal of the eye?
If there is laceration of the choroid layer of the eye with permanent loss of vision, doctors may opt to remove the damaged eye, because leaving it may lead to an autoimmune reaction against the opposite eye(post-traumatic uveitis) from antigens originally sequestered in the choroid but now released.
What is Digeorge syndrome?
there is failure of thymic development, and hence a deficiency in T cells.