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84 Cards in this Set

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1.Achalasia (of esophagus) can cause which of the following symptoms?

A.increased frequency of chyme to enter the intestines

B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach

C.constant constipation in the bowels

D.inability to secrete salivary amylase

E.difficulty in swallowing
B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach
6.Gastro-ileal reflex does NOT include which of the following?

A.increased gastric emptying

B.increased motility in ilieum

C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl

D.increased relaxation of ileocecal sphincter

E.intestinal chyme moves from ilium into cecum
C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl @
7.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of smooth muscle?

A.rate of contraction and energy utilization is LESS than skeletal muscle

B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres

C.has a higher resting potential than skeletal muscle

D.can sustain prolonged contrations

E.are electrically
coupled to other muscles
B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres @
8.What is the BER for the: stomach, The duodenum, and The ileum?
stomach (3)
The duodenum (12)
The ileum (9)
9.What would the sympathetic nervous system do to the BER?
Weaken the graded potential to decrease number of contraction occurrences.
10.What is the purpose of rhythmic segmentation?
To mix food
1.Achalasia (of esophagus) can cause which of the following symptoms?

A.increased frequency of chyme to enter the intestines

B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach

C.constant constipation in the bowels

D.inability to secrete salivary amylase

E.difficulty in swallowing
B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach
What would the parasympathetic nervous system do to the BER? Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
What is the purpose of tonic contraction?
To divide the food, divide into functional segments
6.Gastro-ileal reflex does NOT include which of the following?

A.increased gastric emptying

B.increased motility in ilieum

C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl

D.increased relaxation of ileocecal sphincter

E.intestinal chyme moves from ilium into cecum
C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl @
What is the purpose of peristalsis? To propel food down the GI lumen.
To propel food down the GI lumen.
7.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of smooth muscle?

A.rate of contraction and energy utilization is LESS than skeletal muscle

B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres

C.has a higher resting potential than skeletal muscle

D.can sustain prolonged contrations

E.are electrically
coupled to other muscles
B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres @
8.What is the BER for the: stomach, The duodenum, and The ileum?
stomach (3)
The duodenum (12)
The ileum (9)
11.Define the migrating motor complex, and the 3 phases?
Occurs during inter-digestive periods, it propels stuff down the lumen,

the “clean sweep.”
Phase 1 – no contractions / Phase II – irregular contractions /
Phase III – regular contractions.
9.What would the sympathetic nervous system do to the BER?
Weaken the graded potential to decrease number of contraction occurrences.
12.Which of the following does NOT inhibits MMC?

A. CCK
B. Ach
C. Motilin
D. Gastrin
E. T3/T4
C. Motilin @
10.What is the purpose of rhythmic segmentation?
To mix food
What would the parasympathetic nervous system do to the BER? Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
1.Achalasia (of esophagus) can cause which of the following symptoms?

A.increased frequency of chyme to enter the intestines

B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach

C.constant constipation in the bowels

D.inability to secrete salivary amylase

E.difficulty in swallowing
B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach
What is the purpose of tonic contraction?
To divide the food, divide into functional segments
What is the purpose of peristalsis? To propel food down the GI lumen.
To propel food down the GI lumen.
6.Gastro-ileal reflex does NOT include which of the following?

A.increased gastric emptying

B.increased motility in ilieum

C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl

D.increased relaxation of ileocecal sphincter

E.intestinal chyme moves from ilium into cecum
C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl @
11.Define the migrating motor complex, and the 3 phases?
Occurs during inter-digestive periods, it propels stuff down the lumen,

the “clean sweep.”
Phase 1 – no contractions / Phase II – irregular contractions /
Phase III – regular contractions.
7.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of smooth muscle?

A.rate of contraction and energy utilization is LESS than skeletal muscle

B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres

C.has a higher resting potential than skeletal muscle

D.can sustain prolonged contrations

E.are electrically
coupled to other muscles
B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres @
12.Which of the following does NOT inhibits MMC?

A. CCK
B. Ach
C. Motilin
D. Gastrin
E. T3/T4
C. Motilin @
8.What is the BER for the: stomach, The duodenum, and The ileum?
stomach (3)
The duodenum (12)
The ileum (9)
9.What would the sympathetic nervous system do to the BER?
Weaken the graded potential to decrease number of contraction occurrences.
10.What is the purpose of rhythmic segmentation?
To mix food
What would the parasympathetic nervous system do to the BER? Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
What is the purpose of tonic contraction?
To divide the food, divide into functional segments
What is the purpose of peristalsis? To propel food down the GI lumen.
To propel food down the GI lumen.
11.Define the migrating motor complex, and the 3 phases?
Occurs during inter-digestive periods, it propels stuff down the lumen,

the “clean sweep.”
Phase 1 – no contractions / Phase II – irregular contractions /
Phase III – regular contractions.
12.Which of the following does NOT inhibits MMC?

A. CCK
B. Ach
C. Motilin
D. Gastrin
E. T3/T4
C. Motilin @
1.Achalasia (of esophagus) can cause which of the following symptoms?

A.increased frequency of chyme to enter the intestines

B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach

C.constant constipation in the bowels

D.inability to secrete salivary amylase

E.difficulty in swallowing
B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach
6.Gastro-ileal reflex does NOT include which of the following?

A.increased gastric emptying

B.increased motility in ilieum

C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl

D.increased relaxation of ileocecal sphincter

E.intestinal chyme moves from ilium into cecum
C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl @
1.Achalasia (of esophagus) can cause which of the following symptoms?

A.increased frequency of chyme to enter the intestines

B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach

C.constant constipation in the bowels

D.inability to secrete salivary amylase

E.difficulty in swallowing
B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach
7.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of smooth muscle?

A.rate of contraction and energy utilization is LESS than skeletal muscle

B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres

C.has a higher resting potential than skeletal muscle

D.can sustain prolonged contrations

E.are electrically
coupled to other muscles
B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres @
8.What is the BER for the: stomach, The duodenum, and The ileum?
stomach (3)
The duodenum (12)
The ileum (9)
6.Gastro-ileal reflex does NOT include which of the following?

A.increased gastric emptying

B.increased motility in ilieum

C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl

D.increased relaxation of ileocecal sphincter

E.intestinal chyme moves from ilium into cecum
C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl @
7.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of smooth muscle?

A.rate of contraction and energy utilization is LESS than skeletal muscle

B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres

C.has a higher resting potential than skeletal muscle

D.can sustain prolonged contrations

E.are electrically
coupled to other muscles
B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres @
9.What would the sympathetic nervous system do to the BER?
Weaken the graded potential to decrease number of contraction occurrences.
10.What is the purpose of rhythmic segmentation?
To mix food
8.What is the BER for the: stomach, The duodenum, and The ileum?
stomach (3)
The duodenum (12)
The ileum (9)
What would the parasympathetic nervous system do to the BER? Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
9.What would the sympathetic nervous system do to the BER?
Weaken the graded potential to decrease number of contraction occurrences.
1.Achalasia (of esophagus) can cause which of the following symptoms?

A.increased frequency of chyme to enter the intestines

B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach

C.constant constipation in the bowels

D.inability to secrete salivary amylase

E.difficulty in swallowing
B. difficulty of foods to enter the stomach
What is the purpose of tonic contraction?
To divide the food, divide into functional segments
10.What is the purpose of rhythmic segmentation?
To mix food
6.Gastro-ileal reflex does NOT include which of the following?

A.increased gastric emptying

B.increased motility in ilieum

C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl

D.increased relaxation of ileocecal sphincter

E.intestinal chyme moves from ilium into cecum
C.increased digestive activity of the stomach via HCl @
7.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of smooth muscle?

A.rate of contraction and energy utilization is LESS than skeletal muscle

B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres

C.has a higher resting potential than skeletal muscle

D.can sustain prolonged contrations

E.are electrically
coupled to other muscles
B.smooth muscle can be binucleated and utilizes sarcomeres @
What would the parasympathetic nervous system do to the BER? Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
What is the purpose of peristalsis? To propel food down the GI lumen.
To propel food down the GI lumen.
What is the purpose of tonic contraction?
To divide the food, divide into functional segments
11.Define the migrating motor complex, and the 3 phases?
Occurs during inter-digestive periods, it propels stuff down the lumen,

the “clean sweep.”
Phase 1 – no contractions / Phase II – irregular contractions /
Phase III – regular contractions.
8.What is the BER for the: stomach, The duodenum, and The ileum?
stomach (3)
The duodenum (12)
The ileum (9)
What is the purpose of peristalsis? To propel food down the GI lumen.
To propel food down the GI lumen.
9.What would the sympathetic nervous system do to the BER?
Weaken the graded potential to decrease number of contraction occurrences.
12.Which of the following does NOT inhibits MMC?

A. CCK
B. Ach
C. Motilin
D. Gastrin
E. T3/T4
C. Motilin @
10.What is the purpose of rhythmic segmentation?
To mix food
11.Define the migrating motor complex, and the 3 phases?
Occurs during inter-digestive periods, it propels stuff down the lumen,

the “clean sweep.”
Phase 1 – no contractions / Phase II – irregular contractions /
Phase III – regular contractions.
What would the parasympathetic nervous system do to the BER? Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
Strengthen the graded potential to increase the number of contraction occurrences.
What is the purpose of tonic contraction?
To divide the food, divide into functional segments
What is the purpose of peristalsis? To propel food down the GI lumen.
To propel food down the GI lumen.
12.Which of the following does NOT inhibits MMC?

A. CCK
B. Ach
C. Motilin
D. Gastrin
E. T3/T4
C. Motilin @
11.Define the migrating motor complex, and the 3 phases?
Occurs during inter-digestive periods, it propels stuff down the lumen,

the “clean sweep.”
Phase 1 – no contractions / Phase II – irregular contractions /
Phase III – regular contractions.
12.Which of the following does NOT inhibits MMC?

A. CCK
B. Ach
C. Motilin
D. Gastrin
E. T3/T4
C. Motilin @
13. Which one of the following is NOT found in saliva? (Also define their functions)

A.Mucus – lubrication of food

B.Amylase – digest starch

C.Bicarbonate – neutralize acid in mouth

D.antimicrobial agents – anti-microbial effects

E.LH
E.LH @
14.What does the fundus secrete?
Top of the stomach – exocrine secretions.
15.What does the corpus secrete?
Middle of the stomach – exocrine secretions.
16.What does the antrum secrete?
Bottom of the stomach – both exocrine and endocrine
17. What do mucous neck cells secrete?
Mucus
18. What do chief cells secrete?

24. Which of the following is true?

A. M3 receptor activates the PLC mechanism @
B. CCK receptor activates the PKA mechanism
C. H2 histamine activates the PLC mechanism
D. M3 receptor activates the Ras mechanism
E. CCK receptor activates the cGMP mechanism

CCK/M3 – PLC mechanism
H2 – PKA mechanism

phase? Gastric phase.

27. Which of the following is NOT a common treatment for ulcers?

A. anti-acids
B. histamine receptor antagonists
C. hydrogen pump inhibitor
D. antibiotics
E. RNAi @

28. What are pancreatic acinar cells? What stimulates them? They are cells in the pancreas that make and secrete pancreatic enzymes. CCK / Ach stimulates the acinar digestive enzymes, secretin stimulates bicarbonate secretion.

29. Name all pancreatic enzymes listed in the notes, their pro hormones, and their action. IN THE NOTES!
30. Give the order of activation of pancreatic enzymes. Trypsinogen activated by enterokinase on the brush border to trypsin, trypsin goes to activate chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin. Trypsin activates any other pro-hormones as well.
31. Draw the model of bicarbonate secretion from ductal cells, the vital portions. Still know the importance of carbonic anhydrase, know the concept behind acidic tide.

32. Which of the following phases plays a major part in regulation of pancreatic secretion after a meal?

A. gastric phase
B. cephalic phase
C. intestinal phase @
D. cecal phase
E. thrombic phase

33. Which of the following is FALSE in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts?

A. bile acids are absorbed in the colon @
B. the liver uptakes the bile salts and recycles them
C. the gall bladder stores bile
D. bile is released from the opening in the Sphincter of Odi
E. bile salts flow through the digestive tract to exert its actions
pepsinogen
19. What doe parietal cells secrete?
HCl + intrinsic factor
20. What do mast cells secrete?
histamine
21. Which one of the following is NOT true?

A.vitamin B12 needs a carrier to be absorbed

B.the carrier for B12 is intrinsic factor

C.intrinsic factor is secreted by parietal cells

D.lack of intrinsic factor causes anemia

E.B12 is absorbed in the large intestine
E.B12 is absorbed in the large intestine @ - absorbed in the ileum
23. Which of the following is NOT true of regulation of HCl secretion?

A.gastrin increases

B.somatostatin increases

C.histamine increases

D.Ach increases

E.Neuron stimulation increases
B.somatostatin increases

@, this is the answer cause the hormone/function is incorrectly paired.
24. Which of the following is true?

A.M3 receptor activates the PLC mechanism

B.CCK receptor activates the PKA mechanism

C.H2 histamine activates the PLC mechanism

D.M3 receptor activates the Ras mechanism

E.CCK receptor activates the cGMP mechanism
CCK/M3 – PLC mechanism
H2 – PKA mechanism
A.M3 receptor activates the PLC mechanism @
25. Why is pepsin secreted as a pro-hormone?
To protect the cell from self-digestion.
26. Which phase contributes most to gastric secretion after a meal? Cephalic, gastric, or intestinal
Gastric Phase
27. Which of the following is NOT a common treatment for ulcers?

A. anti-acids

B. histamine receptor antagonists

C. hydrogen pump inhibitor

D. antibiotics

E. RNAi
E. RNAi
28. What are pancreatic acinar cells?
What stimulates them?
They are cells in the pancreas that
make and secrete pancreatic enzymes.

CCK / Ach stimulates the acinar digestive enzymes, secretin stimulates bicarbonate secretion.
30. Give the order of activation of pancreatic enzymes.
Trypsinogen activated by enterokinase on the brush border to trypsin, trypsin goes to activate chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin. Trypsin activates any other pro-hormones as well.
32. Which of the following phases plays a major part in regulation of pancreatic secretion after a meal?

A. gastric phase
B. cephalic phase
C. intestinal phase
D. cecal phase
E. thrombic phase
C.intestinal phase
33. Which of the following is FALSE in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts?

A. bile acids are absorbed in the colon
B. the liver uptakes the bile salts and recycles them
C. the gall bladder stores bile
D. bile is released from the opening in the Sphincter of Odi
E. bile salts flow through the digestive tract to exert its actions
A.bile acids are absorbed in the colon @