Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/16

Click to flip

16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
After a car accident a patient complains about gastric “fullness” after eating only small
amounts of food. Clinical tests show that mild distention of the stomach leads to a rapid increase
in stomach intraluminal pressure. A lesion in which of the following is most likely responsible
for the symptom.
a. The submucosal plexus
b. The vagus nerve
c. The myenteric plexus
d. The nucleus ambiguous
e. The dorsal motor nucleus
b. The vagus nerve
2. In which of the following regions is the intraluminal pressure the highest when there is no
swallowing activity?
a. pharynx
b. mouth
c. stomach
d. lower esophageal sphincter
e. body of the esophagus
d. lower esophageal sphincter
A nerve ending that releases norepinephrine onto an arteriole in the small intestine is injected
with a dye that spreads throughout the nerve. The nerve cell body labeled by the dye most likely
will be located in the:

a. suprachiasmatic nucleus.
b. myenteric plexus.
c. brain.
d. sacral region of the
spinal cord.
e. sympathetic ganglion.
e. Sympathetic ganglion
Secretion of bicarbonate ion from the pancreas:

a. is increased by entry of acid into the duodenum.

b. is prevented by cutting the vagus nerve.

c. is stimulated by secretin.

d. (a) and (c) are correct

e. (a), (b), and (c) are correct
d. (a) and (c) are correct
A patient comes into the doctor’s office complaining about tiredness and muscle fatigue. Clinical tests demonstrated that the patient had a large reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells. Additional clinical tests showed that the patient has general gastric atrophy and has gastric achlorhydria (no hydrochloric acid). As a further clinical test the doctor injected gastrin into the blood of this patient and observed that the patient’s gastric secretions failed to decrease
below pH 7.0.

5. This patient most likely suffers from degeneration or loss of what gastric cell type? (Please refer to problem statement number one)
a. Chief cells
b. Parietal cells
c. Surface mucous cells
d. Peptic cells
e. G-cells
b. Parietal cells
A patient comes into the doctor’s office complaining about tiredness and muscle fatigue. Clinical tests demonstrated that the patient had a large reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells. Additional clinical tests showed that the patient has general gastric atrophy and has gastric achlorhydria (no hydrochloric acid). As a further clinical test the doctor injected gastrin into the blood of this patient and observed that the patient’s gastric secretions failed to decrease
below pH 7.0.

6. What is the most likely reason the patient has a large reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells and thus complains of tiredness? (Please refer to problem statement number one)
a. The patient has diminished absorption of iron.
b. The patient has a large reduction in digestion and absorption.
c. The patient has sustained contraction of the pylorus.
d. The patient has a large reduction in intrinsic factor secretion.
e. The patient has an over abundance in pepsinogen secretion.
d. The patient has a large reduction in intrinsic factor secretion.
A patient comes into the doctor’s office complaining about tiredness and muscle fatigue. Clinical tests demonstrated that the patient had a large reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells. Additional clinical tests showed that the patient has general gastric atrophy and has gastric achlorhydria (no hydrochloric acid). As a further clinical test the doctor injected gastrin into the blood of this patient and observed that the patient’s gastric secretions failed to decrease
below pH 7.0.

7. Why doesn’t the patient suffer from general malnutrition? (Please refer to problem statement number one)
a. The patient secretes sufficient levels of pepsin.
b. Digestion within the stomach is not affected by achlorhydria.
c. Pancreatic enzymes are capable of digesting virtually all protein and fat in the diet.
d. Gastric absorption of digested foodstuffs is not affected by achlorhydria.
e. Gastric emptying slows down, thus allowing the stomach more time to digest food.
c. Pancreatic enzymes are capable of digesting virtually all protein and fat in the diet.
8. Intravenous injection of a hormone initiates contraction of the gall bladder and secretion of bile. Which hormone was most likely injected?
a. Gastrin
b. Secretin
c. Motilin
d. Somatostatin
e. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
E. CCK
9. Intestinal digestion of triacylglycerols is facilitated by incorporation of these molecules into
a. large oil droplets.
b. small emulsified fat particles.
c. micelles.
d. chylomicrons.
e. phospholipids.
b. small emulsified fat particles.
10. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
a. is released by parasympathetic stimulation.
b. is released by sympathetic stimulation.
c. stimulates bicarbonate ion secretion from the pancreas.
d. stimulates enzyme secretion from the pancreas.
e. increases gastrin release from G-cells.
d. stimulates enzyme secretion from the pancreas.
11. Intravenous injection of a hormone increases gastric emptying. Which hormone was most likely injected?
a. Gastrin
b. Secretin
c. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
d. Somatostatin
e. Gastric inhibitory peptide
a. Gastrin
Smooth muscle electrical activity was measured at two different regions, A and B, of the small intestine. Over a period of one minute, there were 12 slow waves measured in region A and 8 slow waves measured in region B. Spike (action) potentials were superimposed on 4 of the slow waves in region A and on 6 of the slow waves at region B.

12. Which of the following is most correct? (Please refer to problem statement number two)
a. Region A is located orad (towards the mouth) to region B.
b. Duration of each contraction in region A is longer than the duration of each contraction in region B during that one minute.
c. The force of each contraction at region A is greater than the force contraction at region B.
d. Region B is sphincter undergoing tonic contraction.
e. The number of contractions at region A was greater that the number of
contractions at region B during that one minute.
a. Region A is located orad (towards the mouth) to region B.
Smooth muscle electrical activity was measured at two different regions, A and B, of the small intestine. Over a period of one minute, there were 12 slow waves measured in region A and 8 slow waves measured in region B. Spike (action) potentials were superimposed on 4 of the slow waves in region A and on 6 of the slow waves at region B.


13. Administration of drug X allows the depolarization phase of the all the slow waves measured to reach a spike (action) potential. Administration of drug X would cause (Please refer to problem statement number two)
a. region A to contract 4 times per minute.
b. region A to contract 12 times per minute.
c. region B to contract 6 times per minute.
d. an increase in the frequency of slow waves (or BER) in both region A and B.
e. Both (a) and (c) are correct
b. region A to contract 12 times per minute.
14. Prior to absorption, protein must first be digested to
a. polypeptides.
b. pentapeptides.
c. oligopeptides.
d. free amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides.
e. free amino acids.
d. free amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides.
15. Which of the following enzymes is located in the brush border and plays a role in protein digestion?
a. Lactase
b. Enterokinase
c. Pepsin
d. Sucrase
e. Trypsin
b. Enterokinase
16. Gastric emptying is
a. accelerated by the presence of acid in the duodenum.
b. slower for liquids than for solid particles.
c. increased as the caloric content of nutrients in the duodenum increases.
d. faster for isotonic liquids than hypertonic liquids.
e. increased by activation of pelvic nerves.
d. faster for isotonic liquids than hypertonic liquids.