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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
HR > 125 bpm =
ecg can provide info about (4 things)
heartbeat rate & rhythm, conduction velocity, cardiomegaly, tissue damage
what is stroke volume
blood ejected from ea. ventricle during contraction
lub =
av valves closing
beta blockers
decrease heartrate
ventricular diastole
ventricular pressure declines. semilunar valves close, dub sound
intercalated discs
2 cardiac muscle cells connected by gas junctions
stimulation of beta receptors on heart muscle results in
formation of cAMP
rapid depol phase is due to what ion?
Na+ entry
plateau phase is due to influx of
steep polarization phase due to
acetylcholine slows HR by
decreasing permeability only to ca++
ca++ channel blockers
decrease force of cardiac contraction
arteries are healthy when they are (2)
compliant and elastic
ca++ channel blockers bind to ca++ channel proteins and
make vessels dilate
the growth of new blood vessels
bloodflow to a tissue will increase if
level of CO2 at tissue increases
difference between systole and diastole pressure =
pulse pressure
myogenic autoregulation
stretched smooth muscle in a BV constricts reflexively
vascular smooth muscle has ______ receptors and constricts in response to sympathtic stimulation
epi binds to beta-2 receptors and DOES NOT
reduce bloodflow to the liver
_______ capillaries are very porous and allow high volumes of fluid to pass thru them. ___________ caps are tightly joined cells with high selectiveness
fenestrated. continuous.
restoring lost fluid from the caps back to the circulatory system is a major function of what system
pulmonary edema is associated with (2)
left side heart failure and dyspnea r/t ox exchange
integrating center for neural control of BP:
medulla oblongata
baroreceptor reflex, when triggered by a BP decline, does what 2 things
increases sympathetic activity and increases cardiac output
HDL cholesterol is taken where and why
to the liver for use or excretion
how does chronic htn develop
baroreceptors adapt to higher pressures
fenestrated capillaries are found:
in the liver
what are the medicinal tx for htn
ace inhibitors, ca++ channel blockers, beta blockers (NOT ANP blockers or chloride blockers)
fluid portion of blood containing h2o and chons is called
plasma chons necessary for blood clotting are
what plasma chons are found in the highest concentration in normal blood
rbc production regulated by what hormone
thrombopoietin is produced where
kidneys and liver
average lifespan of a rbc
4 months
hgb molecule is made of
4 chon chains and 4 heme groups
rbc production is called
rbc's are shaped as bi-concave disk to allow it to:
change shapes to squeeze thru and shrink or swell slightly in response to osmotic conditions
platelets are fromed from cells in bone marrow called
what happens first in hemostasis
platelet adhesion, then pl. aggregation, then plug, then fibrinogen conversion, then thrombus
actual sites of gas exchange within lungs are
repiratory tree in order
primary bronchi, 2ndary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronch's, alveoli
airway btween larynx and primary bronchi
air moves into lungs because
gas pressure in lungs is less than outside pressure
what does surfactant do
helps prevent alveoli from collapsing
why do CF sufferers have dyspnea
thick secretions exceed ability of mucus elevator to tranport it
inhale then blow all air out possible. what's the amount of air expelled called
vital capacity
glottis is closed, abd and intercostals contract, creating pressure that blast air out.
exchange of respiratory gasses occurs by
simple diffusion
lung pathology r/t heart disease
pulmonary edema
most important chemical regulator of respiration
10% increase in co2 in the blood will do what to respiration
increase its rate
smooth muscle cells of bronchioles are well supplied with ________ receptors
pathology where o2 carrying capacity of the blood is reduced
most o2 is transported by the blood is
bound to hgb
high co2 in body fluids is called
co2 is more soluble in water than o2. to get the same amt of o2 to dissolve in plasma as in co2, you would need to
increase the partial pressure of o2
o2 saturation of hgb is greater when the pH is higher or lower
o2 saturation of hgn is greater when the temp is higher or lower
functions of urinary system
maintains plasma ion balance, regulated vol of ecf, balances pH, eliminates organic waste products and foreign mat'ls - all the above
do kidneys regulate blood protein levels
ions directly regulated by the kidney include:
na+, k+, ca++, Hco3 (NOT OH)
urine is produced in what organ
is the liver part of the urinary system?
bowmans capsule and glomerulus together are called
renal corpuscle
glomerulus is
a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle
the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct is the
distal tubule
the hairpin shaped sement of the nephron is the
loop of henle
the region known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is formed by what part of the nephron
distal tubule
the process of filtration happens where
bowmans capsule
glomerular filtration ifs favored by the
hydraulic pressure of the blood in the glomerular capillaries
process of urine formation involves
filtering plasma, reabsorbing water and certain solutes, secreting wastes - all the above
primary function of the proximal tubule is
reabsorption of ions, organic molecules and water
process of filtration is drivn by
blood hydraulic pressure
normal urine does not containt
glucose, chons, consistent amts of ions, amino acids
glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by
symport with sodium
during micturation reflex
all the above, stimulation of stretch receptors, increased parasympa motor neurons, internal sphincter must be consciously relaxed, external sphinctor relaxes parasympathetically
large proteins are not normal in urine
one of these leads from each kidney to the urinary bladder
hollow expandable organ collects and stores urine
outer layer of kidney tissue
functional unit of kidney
inner layer of kidney tissue
damage to the renal medulla would interfere first with the functioning of the
collecting ducts
obstruction in glomerulus would affect blood flow to
efferent arteriole
glucose is brought into cytoplasm of kidney tubular cells against its concentration gradient by
symport with sodium and harnessing the energy of na+ moving down its electrochemical gradient
3 systems that work together most closely to regulate BP, osmolarity and pH are
urinary, respiratory, and cv
kidneys can alter ecf volume and osmolarity by
changing the amout of water AND sodium secreted
hormones that controls water excretion by the kidneys is
primary osmoreceptors are located in the
principal cation in the icf is
plams water is lost, but lytes retained
osmosis moves water from icf to ecf
adh does what
stimulates water conservation at kidneys
baroreceptos in carotid and aortic bodies sensing increased BP trigger
inhibition of ADH secretion
portion of nephron that creates dilute urine
loop of henle
juxtaglomerular cells in the nephron secrete
antiotensin II
stimulates thirst, causes widespread vasoconstriction, causes synthesis and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex
ace inhibitors
block angiotensin 1 conversion to 2. lowers BP. reduces na+ reabsorption. decreases ecf volume
promotes sodium retention in kidneys
concetration of sodium in ecf decreases, what happens next
less adh is released
ANP atrial natriuretic peptide
increases GFR and inhibits the release of renin
ANP's effect on NP
lowers it
increase in plasma potassium levels
most k+ in body is
inside cells
excess potassium ions are eliminated from body via
thirst is controlled where
centers in the hypothalamus
thirst is triggered by
increased osmolarity
symptoms of low plasma pH may include
CNS depression, confusion, disorientation
hyperventilation causes
respiratory acidosis
compensators for pH of body fluids
all of the above (all buffer systems and changes in rate and depth of breathing)
emphysema sufferers exhbit what pH condition
respiratory acidosis
moutain climber at high altitude would exhibit
respiratory alkalosis
high consumption of antacids puts you at risk for
metabolic alkalosis
changes in blood osmotic pressure would affect the levels of what hormone in blood
enzyme renin is responsibile for activation of
dehydration causes
increased thirst
when would pH be lower, after hyperventilating or hypoventilating
pH of the ecf declines, then the kidneys secrete
potassium ions
man lost in desert with little water for 2 days would exhibit
high adh levels
chronic pathology with altered bowel habits and abd pain r/t motility
irritable bowel syndrome
cephalic phase of digestion is drive by
seeing and smelling foods
GI phases - what does the paracrine somatostatin in the stomach do
inhibits gastric acid secretion
cholecystokinin's primary action is
release of bile from gall bladder
4 layers of the gi tract from outermost layer and in
4132 serosa, muscularis, submucosa, muscosa
the pancreatic reflex of the small intestine is mediated by
the nervous system and cholectykinin
what area of the brain controls the vomiting reflex
healthy cholesterol lipoprotin
HDL high density lipochons
what's hypercholesterolemia
elevated plasma cholesterol
primary hormones responsible for glucose metab
insulin and glucagon
protein hormone is produced by adipocytes and indirectly inhibits appetite
during the fasting state the CNS depends on
gluconeogenesis by the liver and the kidneys
what symptoms/diagnostic features offer the best info that your patient has the most common type of DM
patient is adult and obese
symptoms of DM1
destruction of beta cells leading to no insulin and elevated fasting BG
primary target tissues for insulin
liver muscle adipose
dehydration is consequence of what
polyuria, severe thirst, diuresis
hyperthermia can be countered by
wetting the skin
secretion of _____________ in the hypothalamic - pituitary - adremocortical axis is r/t its source cells firing action potentials
corticotropin releasing hormone
metanolism stimulating hormones of the ______ gland are lipophilic molecules. this is the only place int he body where ______serves an impt function
thyroid; iodine
growth hormone
promotes bone and muscle growth, amino acid uptake by cells, glucose sparing
cortisol can affect bone metabolism how
weakened bones, increased renal excretion of calcium, increased bone resorption - all the above
plasma ca++ decreases, nervous system becomes hyperexcitable
bulging eyes, goiter, and accelerated metabolism are signs of
graves disease.
how is t3 released
hypothalamus releases trh, ant pit releases tsh, thyroid releases t4, t4 conversts to t3
most ca in body is found in
increased free phosphate ions would acocmpany
bone loss r/t osteoporosis
acromegaly is
adults, enlarged jaws, hands, feet, coarsening of facial features
3 major functions of immune system
protect from pathogens, remove dead and damaged stuff, recognize and remove abnormal cells
order of immune response
detect/id, communicate, recruit/coordinate, destroy/suppress
primary cells of immune system
which leukocytes contain histamine and heparin
what stimulates pain receptors, tenderness, inflam
what does interleukin-2 do
mediate inflam response
3 main types of lympohcytes
B and T lymphocytes, natural killer cells
occurs when body is exposed to pathogen and creates its own antibodies
active immunity
RA, MS, and guillain barre are common autoimmune diseases
baroreceptor reflex during exercise
signals from motor cortex during exercise reset arterial baroreceptor threshold to a higher pressure
with chronic exercise, skeletal muscle fibers upregulate
glucose TRANsporters and insulin RECEPTors
primary substrates for energy production
carbs and fats
fx of sympathetic stimulation
increased everything
as body temp rises, what thermoregulatory mechanisms are triggered
sweating, cutaneous bloodflow
feedforward signals from motor cortex and sensory feedback from perif sensory receptors
exercise hyperventilation
redistribution of bloodflow during exercise from combo of
vasodilation of skeletal muscle arterioles and vasoconstriction in other tissues
during exercise
plasma glucose concentrations rise and insulin secretion decreases
in the production of gamets within each cell there are 4 complete sets of chromosomes when
at the onset of meiosis
to develop normally in females, every cell in embryo must have
one x chromosome and unexposed to fetal androgens
in the absense of anti mullerian hormones/androgens, what do the mullerian ducts become
fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vagina
ambivalence of the bipotential gonad ends
near end of month 2 of gestation, r/t SRY gene product
mechanism leading to male or femaile behavioral template
related to gonodal steroids in non humans. humans: not clearly defined
blood flow to erectile penis
is increased by activity in parasympa neurons. parasympa has direct control of blood flow
the scrotum is outside the abd cavity because
sperm production is impaired at higher temps in abd cavity
sertoli cells of seminiferous tubules require stimulation from ______ in order to __________
FSH and testosterone to support spermiogenesis
ovarian steroids exert negative feedback on hypothalamic pituitary reproductive axis ecxept
for a brief time before ovulation