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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Endocrine
- organ, tissue or cell secrete
- ECF, circulatory system
- target cells through receptors
- very small amounts, cell magnifies effects
- effect is target cel mediated
- insulin, growth hormones, estrogen, TH
Endocrine Organs
- pituitary
- pineal gland
- thyroid
- thymus
- adrenal
- pancreas
- ovaries
- testes
Exocrine
- gland
- outside of body or duct or cavity that is open to the outside
- no target cells or receptors
- large amounts secreted
- regional effects
- saliva, sweat, milk, digestive enzymes
Endocrine Tissues
- Endocrine cells in non-endocrine organs
- hypothalamus
- heart
- kidney
- tissue
- small intestine
Paracrine
- secretion has effect on neighboring cell
Autocrine
- secretion has effect on cell or tissue that secretes it
Steps of Peptide Hormone Synthesis
- 1) Nucleus DNA --> mRNA
- 2) Ribosome mRNA --> pre-pro-hormone
- 3) ER Pro-hormone (signal peptide removed)
- 4) Golgi --> hormone (glycosylation, phosphorylation)
- 5) Secretory vesicles --> hormone
Membrane Bound Receptors
- 1) Channel linked
- 2) Enzyme linked
- 3) G Protein linked
Where and how does a hydrophobic hormone effect its actions?
- diffuses through cell membrane and binds to receptor
- either in nucleus or complex travels to nucleus
- binds to regulatory sequence of DNA
- effect: turns on or off the target gene
Second Messengers of G protein linked Receptors
- 1) cAMP/cGMP
- 2) DAG + IP3
- 3) Ca - Calmodulin
What are the target proteins in general?
- 1) metabolic enzymes
- 2) gene regulatory proteins
- 3) cytoskeletal proteins that alter the shape of the cell or movement
Autocrine Signalling
- group of identical cells produce a high cocentration of a secreted signal, that binds back to a receptor on the same cell type --> coordination
Signal Amplification
- one messenger --> several G proteins --> each one activates adenylate cyclase --> each generates 100's of cAMP --> each cAMP activates a PKA --> each PKA --> P hundreds of proteins
Water Soluble
- peptides, proteins, catecholamines
- travels free in plasma
- short half life
- storage as pro-hormones in vesicles
- receptor in or on cell membrane
- act through 2nd messengers
Lipid Soluble
- more intimate
- steroid, thyroid hormones
-
G Protein a- subunit
- GDP --> inactive
- GTP --> active
Adenylate Cyclase mechanism
- 1) a releases GDP, binds GTP
- Gas*--> stimulates adenylate cyclase
- Gai* --> inhibits adenylate cyclase
- 2) intrinsic GTPase --> GTP --> GDP
- 3) adenylate cyclase* ATP --> cAMP
- 4) cAMP --> PKA*
- 5) PKA --> P proteins
Hormones of Hypothalamus
- 1) Thyrotropin Releasing Horomone (TRH)
- 2) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
- 3) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
- 4) Somatotropin release Inhibiting Hormone (Stomatostatin)(SIRF)
- 5) Prolactin- inhibiting Factor (PIF) --> Dopamine
Anterior Pituitary
- 1) TSH
- 2) FSH
- 3) LH
- 4) GH
- 5) Prolactin
- 6) ACTH
- 7) Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH ?)
Posterior Pituitary
- 1) Oxytocin
- 2) ADH
Thyroid Gland
- T4 --> L- thyroxine
- T3 --> Triiodothyronine
Parathyroid
- PTH
Pancreas
- Insulin
- Glucagon
Adrenal Medulla
- NE
- Epinephrine
Kidney
- Renin
- 1,25- Dihydroxycholecalciferol
Adrenal Cortex
- Cortisol
- Aldosterone
-
Adenylyl Cyclase
- cAMP/cGMP
- Protein Kinase A
Phospholipase C
- DAG + IP3
- Protein Kinase C
Ca- Calmodulin
- CaM-Kinase
Enzyme linked receptors
- single pass transmembrane proteins
- ligand binding outside --> catalytic site inside
- most are tyrosine kinases
G Protein a- subunit
- GDP --> inactive
- GTP --> active
Adenylate Cyclase mechanism
- 1) a releases GDP, binds GTP
- Gas*--> stimulates adenylate cyclase
- Gai* --> inhibits adenylate cyclase
- 2) intrinsic GTPase --> GTP --> GDP
- 3) adenylate cyclase* ATP --> cAMP
- 4) cAMP --> PKA*
- 5) PKA --> P proteins
Hormones of Hypothalamus
- 1) Thyrotropin Releasing Horomone (TRH)
- 2) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
- 3) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
- 4) Somatotropin release Inhibiting Hormone (Stomatostatin)(SIRF)
- 5) Prolactin- inhibiting Factor (PIF) --> Dopamine
Anterior Pituitary
- 1) TSH
- 2) FSH
- 3) LH
- 4) GH
- 5) Prolactin
- 6) ACTH
- 7) Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH ?)
Posterior Pituitary
- 1) Oxytocin
- 2) ADH
Thyroid Gland
- T4 --> L- thyroxine
- T3 --> Triiodothyronine
Parathyroid
- PTH
Pancreas
- Insulin
- Glucagon
Adrenal Medulla
- NE
- Epinephrine
Kidney
- Renin
- 1,25- Dihydroxycholecalciferol
Adrenal Cortex
- Cortisol
- Aldosterone
-
Adenylyl Cyclase
- cAMP/cGMP
- Protein Kinase A
Phospholipase C
- DAG + IP3
- Protein Kinase C
Ca- Calmodulin
- CaM-Kinase
Enzyme linked receptors
- single pass transmembrane proteins
- ligand binding outside --> catalytic site inside
- most are tyrosine kinases