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29 Cards in this Set

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What are the two layers of the pericardium?
Parietal pericardium: outer layer forms inner layer of pericardial sac

Visceral pericardium: inner layer of pericardium
What are the sulci?
Coronary sulcus:
divides atria and ventricles
Anterior and posterior

interventricular sulci:
separate left and right ventricles
contain blood vessels of cardiac muscle
What are the three layers of the heart wall?
Epicardium: outer layer
Myocardium: middle layer
Endocardium: inner layer
What is the epicardium?
Visceral pericardium
Covers the heart
What is the myocardium?
Muscular wall of the heart
Concentric layers of cardiac muscle tissue
Atrial myocardium wraps around great vessels
2 divisions of ventricular myocardium
What is the purpose of the intercalated discs?
interconnect cardiac muscle cells
secured by desmosomes
linked by gap junctions
convey force of contraction
propagate action potentials
What are four characteristics of cardiac muscle cells?
Small size
Single, central nucleus
Branching interconnections between cells
Intercalated discs
What is the foramen ovule?
Before birth, is an opening through interatrial septum

Connects the 2 atria

Seals off at birth, forming fossa ovalis
What are the pectinate muscles?
Contain prominent muscular ridges

On anterior atrial wall

And inner surfaces of right auricle
What do the chordae tendineae do?
Prevent backflow of blood by preventing valves from flipping in

Connected to papillary muscles
What is regurgitation?
Failure of valves, causes backflow of blood into atria
What are the aortic sinuses?
At base of ascending aorta

Prevent valve cusps from sticking to aorta

Origin of right and left coronary arteries
Where do the coronary arteries originate?
Aortic sinuses
Where does the right coronary artery supply blood to?
right atrium
portions of both ventricles
cells of sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular nodes
marginal arteries (surface of right ventricle)
posterior interventricular artery
Where does the left coronary artery supply blood to?
left ventricle
left atrium
interventricular septum

2 main branches:
circumflex artery
anterior interventricular artery
What are anastomoses?
Interconnect vessicles to stabalize blood supply by creating multiple pathways to tissues
What are the two types of cardiac muscle cells?
Conducting system: controls and coordinates heartbeat

Contractile cells: produce contractions
What are some abdormal pacemaker functions?
Bradycardia: abnormally slow heart rate

Tachycardia: abnormally fast heart rate

Cardiac Arrhythmias: Abnormal patterns of cardiac electrical activity
What is an ectopic pacemaker?
Abnormal cells

Generate high rate of action potentials

Bypass conducting system

Disrupt ventricular contractions
ECG Stuff:
P wave: atria depolarize
QRS complex: ventricles depolarize
T wave: ventricles repolarize
P–R interval: from start of atrial depolarization to start of QRS complex
Q–T interval: from ventricular depolarization to ventricular repolarization
What are three steps of cardiac action potential?
Rapid depolarization: voltage-regulated sodium channels (fast channels) open

As sodium channels close:
voltage-regulated calcium channels (slow channels) open balance Na+ ions pumped out hold membrane at 0 mV plateau

Repolarization:
plateau continues slow calcium channels close slow potassium channels open rapid repolarization restores resting potential
What is the absolute refractory period?
long

cardiac muscle cells cannot respond
What is the relative refractory period?
short

response depends on degree of stimulus
How is calcium involved in muscle contraction?
Contraction of a cardiac muscle cell is produced by an increase in calcium ion concentration around myofibrils
What is a cardiac cycle?
systole and diastole
What is a heart murmor?
Sounds produced by regurgitation through valves
What are some cardiodynamics?
End-diastolic volume (EDV)
End-systolic volume (ESV)

Stroke volume (SV)
SV = EDV — ESV

Ejection fraction:
the percentage of EDV represented by SV

Cardiac output (CO):
the volume pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute
What are three factors that effect ESV?
Preload: ventricular stretching during diastole

Contractility: force produced during contraction, at a given preload

Afterload: tension the ventricle produces to open the semilunar valve and eject blood
What is cardiac reserve?
Difference between resting and maximal cardiac output