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85 Cards in this Set

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____ carries blood away from the heart.
Arteries
____ carry blood to the heart.
veins
What are the receiving chambers?
atria
What are the pumping chambers?
ventricles
Arteries are under ____ pressure, veins are under ____ pressure, and capillaries are under ____ resistance.
high
low
high
What is the path of pulmonary circulation?
deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs
oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
What is the path of systemic circulation?
oxygenated blood from heart to body
deoxygenated blood from body to heart
Deoxygenated blood enters the heart on the ____ side of the heart from the ___, which comes from the ____.
right
systemic veins
body
Oxygenated blood enters the heart on the ____ side of the heart from the ___, which comes from the ____.
left
pulmonary veins
lungs
Deoxygenated blood leaves the heart on the ____ side of the heart, go through the ___, which goes to the ____.
right
pulmonary arteries
lungs
Oxygenated blood leaves the heart on the ____ side of the heart, go through the ___ arteries, which goes to the ____.
left
systemic
body
Which arteries carry deoxygenated blood?
pulmonary
Which arteries carry oxygenated blood?
systemic
Which ventricle must generate more pressure, and why?
left
because it must pump blood to the entire body instead of just the lungs
Veins from the upper part of the body form the ____ when blood returns to the heart?
superior venae cavae
Veins from the lower part of the body form the ____ when blood returns to the heart?
inferior venae cavae
Where do the venae cavaes empty into?
right atrium
Oxygenated blood is pumped out of the left ventricle into the ___ which is part of ____.
aorta
systemic circulation
Where does the aorta first branch to?
coronary arteries
Coronary veins empty into the ____ via the ____.
right atria
coronary sinus
A myocardial infarction results from a blockage where? What is a myocardial infarction?
in the coronary arteries
heart attack
Plaque deposits on coronary artery walls is called ____.
atherosclerosis
What are the valves between the atrias and ventricles called?
Atrioventricular valves
Which atrioventriclular valve is on the right?
tricuspid
Which atrioventriclular valve is on the left?
mitral/bicuspid
What are valves between the ventricles and arteries called?
semilunar valves
Which valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery?
pulmonary valve
Which valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta?
aortic vavle
Cardiac muscle has ___ blood vessels and mitochondria than skeletal.
more
Cardiac muscle has ____ nuclei that skeletal muscle.
fewer
What structures anchor cardiac muscle cells?
intercalated disks
What allows for electrical signals to pass from cell to cell?
gap junctions
What is the primary pacemake?
Sinoatrial node
Where does heart contraction begin?
from the apex (bottom) of the heart
How and where does electrical activity of the heart begin?
depolariazation of the SA node
What is the electrical pathway of the heart?
SA node
AV node
Bundle of His (AV bundle)
Bundle branches
Perkinje Fibers
If the primary pacemaker fails, what takes over? What takes over if it fails?
AV node
Ventricular autorhythmic cells
The heart can contract without the nervous system, what is the term for this?
myogenic
Which cardiac cells are responsible for force generation?
contractile cells
Which cardiac cells make up the bulk of heart cells, which are the least?
contractile cells
pacemaker/conductile cells
Which cardiac cells have a stable resting membrane potential and have a long lasting action potential?
contractile cells
Pacemaker cells have an ____ membrane potential at around ____ mv.
unstable
-60
Pacemaker cell AP is called ____.
pacemaker potential
T-type Ca2+ channels are ___ and L-type Ca2+ channels are ___ in duration.
short
long
When T-type channels are open so are ____ channels.
funny
What activates funny channels?
hyperpolarization
What are the four types of channels involved in generation of pacemaker potential, and in what order do they open?
K+ and Na+ permeable membrane channels/If
Ca2+ T-type
Ca2+ L-type
slow K+ channels
____ and ____ are bad for cardiac muscle and will stop bloodflow.
tetany
summation
How are contractile muscle cells excited in the heart?
APs from the pacemaker cells (pacemaker potentials)
In myocardial CONTRACTILE tissue, what closes in response to depolarization? This would mean that these channels are ____ at rest.
V-gated K+ channels
open
Why is AP in cardiac contractile cells longer?
due to Ca2+ influx into the cell
Longer AP in cardiac contractile cells prevents ____ and ____.
tetany
fatigue
What does P represent in terms of polarization?
atrial depolarization
What does QRS represent in terms of polarization?
progressive ventricular depolarization
What does T represent in terms of polarization and the PQRST complex?
repolarization of the ventricles
Where does atrial repolarization occur?
hidden within the QRS complex
Systole is ____ which is represent from ____ to ____ on the graph.
contraction
Q to T
Diastole is ____ which is represent from ____ to ____ on the graph.
relaxation
T to Q
Stroke volume is ____ - ____ and it's unit is what?
EDV - ESV (high - low number)
mL/beat
P-R is ____ contraction.
atrial contraction
Q-T is ____ contraction.
ventricular
When a part of the heart is depolarized it will then ____.
contract
What are the four phases of the cardiac cycle? (hint:four sides of toast)
Ventricular filling
Isovolumetric contraction
Ventricular ejection
Isovolumetric relaxation
The amount of blood that collects in the ventricle is called ____.
EDV
The amount of blood that remains after ventriclular contraction is called ____.
ESV
____ = SV/EDV
ejection fraction
The ANS can alter which portion of CO = SV x HR?
HR
Which cells are innervated by both para and sympathetic nerve fibers?
pacemaker
Which cells are innervated only by sympathetic nerve fibers?
contractile
What is stroke volume altered by?
contractility
preload
afterload
What receptor does the sympathetic system release of NE act mainly on?
Beta1-adrenergic
What happens to the channels when NE/E bind to the Beta1-adrenergic receptors? Is this sympathetic or parasympathetic in nature?
If and Ca2+ channels remain open longer
this speeds up the rate of Na+ entry at the funny channels and Ca2+ at the T-type channel
causes quicker depolarization and higher contractility
sympathetic
What receptor does the parasympathetic system release of ACh act mainly on?
muscarinic
How does the parasympathetic system decrease the heart rate?
increases K+ permeability causeing hyperpolarization
decreases Ca2+ permeability
together these two things make depolarization more difficult
Which ANS system is the dominant influence on the heart? What is this called and what does it do?
parasympathetic
vagal tone
reduces HR by ~25bpm
In basic terms, how does the binding of NE or E to Beta1-adrenergic receptors increase SV?
Activates protein kinase, increases Ca2+ influx from ECF, Ca2+ in and outflux from SR.
All this equals more Ca2+ for more crossbridge cycling
What is preload?
the amount of blood returning to the heart from the veins
What is the most important factor affecting venous return?
central venous pressure
When would more blood flow into the atria? What would this do to preload?
when the central venous pressure increase
(vasoconstriction)
it would increase preload
What is Starlings Law?
If venous return increases, the heart automatically adjusts outflow to match.
or
increase EDV, increase SV
Anytime the heart has increased cell Ca2+ influx, the HR will go ____.
up
When are heart muscles cells operating at their optimal length?
when they are stretched
What happens to SV and ESV if there is increased blood left in the ventricles after contraction? Why?
ESV goes up
SV goes down
if there is more blood left in the ventricle, it means less blood pumped out causing SV to be lower
What reduces the ability of the ventricles to eject blood?
arterial hypertension
What happens if afterload is reduced?
SV goes down