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23 Cards in this Set

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What is plasma? What does it consist of?
Liquid portion of blood. Dissolved in it are large number of proteins, nutrients, metabolic wastes
What are platlets?
cell fragments present in the blood.
Which is the primary cell type within the blood and what is its function? What are the functions of other cells within blood?
erythrocytes (red blood cells) carry oxygen. leukocytes protect against infection and cancer and the platelets function in blood clotting.
what is hematocrit?
percentage of blood volume that is erythrocytes.
If blood were centrifuged, described from top to bottom how the blood would segregate and the percentage of each component.
plasma (uppermost) is 55%; then leukocytes and platelets form thin layer and then erythrocytes (bottommost) is 45%.
Each half of the heart is contains two chambers...what are they?
upper chamber - atrium;
lower chamber - ventricle
Describe pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation.
Blood is pumped from the right ventricle through the lungs and then to the left atrium. It is then pumped through the systemic circulation from the left ventricle through all the organs and tissues of the body except the lungs and then to the right atrium.
What are arteries and veins?
Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood from body organs and tissues back toward the heart.
with which circulation system is the aorta involved? describe the blood path from the heart.
in the systemic circuit blood leaves the left ventricle via the aorta. the arteries of the systemic circulation branch off the aorta, dividing into progressively smaller vessels. the smallest arteries branch into arterioles which branch into a huge number of very small vessles, the capillaries, which unite to form large diameter vessles called the venules. the venules in the systemic circulation then unite to form larger vessels, the veins. the veins from the varios peripheral organs and tissues unite to produce two large veins the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava.
Distinguish between the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava.
inferior vena cava - collects blood from below the heart; superior vena cava - collects blood from above the heart.
Describe the pulmonary circulation.
Blood leaves the right ventricle via a single large artery, the pulmonary trunk, which divides into the two pulmonary arteries, one supplying the right lung and the other the left. In the lungs, the arteries continue to branch, ultimately forming capillaries that unite into venules and then veins. The blood leaves the lungs via four pulmonary veins, which empty into the left atrium.
How does blood pick up oxygen?
As blood flows through the lung capillaries, it picks up oxygen supplied to the lungs by breathing.
What parts of the circulatory system have high oxygen content?
the blood in the pulmonary veins, left side of the heart, and systemic arteries
What is the difference in the amount of blood pumped to the lungs and the peripheral organs and tissues?
the lungs receive ALL the blood pumped by the right side of the heart. As seen by the branching pattern of the systemic arteries, the peripheral organs and tissues receive only a fraction of the blood pumped by the left ventricle
Describe the direction of blood flow.
Blood flow is always from a region of higher pressure to one of lower pressure.
What aspects of pressure affect blood flow?
It is not the absolute pressure but the difference in pressure between relavent points.
What is the basic formula relating pressure, resistance and blood flow?
F = delP/R
What is resistance?
how difficult it is for blood to flow between tow points at any given pressure difference.
What properties influence resistance? What is the formula to determine resistance?
viscosity, length, radius of the tube.
R=(8 x length of tube x viscosity)/(pie x radius to the fourth power)
As hemacrit increases, how does blood viscosity change?
also increases
what happens to hemacrit during extreme dehydration?
reduction in body water leads to a relative increase in hematocrit, and thus an increase in the viscoity of the blood.
Under physiological conditions, does viscosity play a role in CONTROLLING resistance?
under physiological conditions, hematocrit and thus viscosity of blood is relatively constant and does NOT play a role.
Physiologically, which one changes: lengths of blood vessels or radius of blood vessels.
Radius of blood vessels does not remain constant, therefore, 1/r to the 4th power is the most important determinant of changes in resistance. Lengths of blood vessels remain constant in the blody.