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122 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Internal matrix of a cell (semisolid/semifluid) that contains proteins, carbs, lipids, etc.. supports life
Control center of the cell - has genetic material that contols what a cell does
Similar to DNA chemically but is more of a photocopy of DNA - gives directions to the cell without damaging the DNA
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Chemical that forms the genetic material - acts as the master blue print of a cell
Deoxyribuonucleic acid (DNA)
Organelle inside the nucleus - contains raw RNA - storage area for RNA
Protoplasm found between nuclear membrane and cell membrane 70-80% water lipid
Small pieces of RNA granules - serve as templates/molds for formation of protein synthesis
Menbranous channel system that connects various parts of the cell, transports material to the cell, produces lipids, carbs and proteins - things can be synthesised here
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes stud the surface, site of a lot of protein synthesis
Rough ER
Place where protein isn't synthesises
Smooth ER
Makes vesicles that contain chemicals that have to be kept quaranteened
Golgi apparatus
Digestive system of a cell - acid in nature
Vescicles that are produced by golgi apparatus - contain enzymes that are produced by endoplasmic reticulum
Lysosomes and peroxisomes
Contains peroxide and acts as antibacteria
Eats its own waste material in a cell
Cells that ingest and eat things that came from outside the cell
Energy sites of the cell - live within the cell line - has it's own DNA - comes from maternal line only
Structures within a cell that hold a shape
Long slender tubes that contain tubulin (protein) - has a hole in it
2 things that project from the outer surface of the cell membrane (tubules)
Cilia and flagella
Finger like material that projects from the outer surface of the cell membrane
Single long tubule - job is to move the cell - example: male sperm
Cell membrane - double layer of phospholipids
Bilipid layer
Outer part of the cell that is hydrophilic and tolerates water
Polar head
Inside of the bilipid layer - hydrophobic - fears water
Fatty acid tail
Multiple functions - biologically active chemicals
Assorted attached proteins
Fuzzy looking layer of a cell that resembles cotton candy - involved in cell recognition - 1 cell recognizes another cell - involved in cell adhesion
What is this theory? To be life, the basic unti must be a cell. There are around 100 trillion cells , however there is no official law - 25 trillion are red blood cells
Cell theory
How many red blood cells are there?
25 trillion
A building up or conserving energy - similar to yin
Breaking down / energy using - like yang
The sum total of all activity in the body
2 types of opposite types of activity in the body
Anabolism and Catabolism
What is energy?
The ability to do work
The energy currency of the body
ATP ( adenosine triphosphate )
Contains NH2 Nitrogen base
What has 5 carbons?
What has 3 molecules?
Holds 1 unit of ATP
High energy bonds
What is the formula for high energy bonds?
phosphate groups 3:2 + 2:1
Energy production in the absence of oxygen (no oxygen)
Anaerobic metabolism
Initial burning of glucose inside the cytoplasm - can take place anaerobically or aerobically with or without oxygen
A by product of anaerobic
Lactic acid
A by product of aerobic
Pyruvic acid
Burning of glucose in the presence of oxygen
Aerobic metabolism
Another word for the citric acid cycle
Kreb cycle
Takes place inside the mitochondria-happens in the matrix - protein lipids is being broken down here
Citric acid cycle or the kreb cycle
Takes place along the inner walls of the mitochondria
Electron transport system
If the movement of a substance across a membrane does not require energy it is called...
Passive movement (no ATP required)
If energy is required to cross the membrane it is called...
Active movement (ATP is required)
Term for water in humans
Anything small enough to dissolve (water soluble) ex: sugar in coffee
Movement of solute across the semi permeable membrane it will move and equalize
What is this theory? The amount of diffusion on one side determines the rate of diffusion
Concentration gradient
What is this theory? The smaller the size, the faster and easier the rate of diffusion
Particle size
What is this theory? The rate of diffusion will be faster if solute can move across the lipd membrane faster
Lipid solubility
Refers to the opposite charges on opposite sides of the membrane
Electrical gradient
The concentration gradient and the electrical gradient combined are called what?
Electrochemical gradient
What is the term used when solute particles are too big to pass thru the semi-permeable membrane therefore causing water molecules to move in the opposite direction?
The term used for a passive movement in which protein helps solute go through the semi-permeable membrane - known as diffusion with more umph.
Faciliated diffusion
Term used to describe when molecules move with or against a concentration gradient and ATP is burned
Active transport
Term used to describe the main molecule being moved across the membrane burning energy ATP
Primary active transport
Term used to describe a 2nd molecule moving along with the 1st at the same time
Secondary active transport
Term used to describe when the 2nd molecule moves along with the primary transport moving in the same direction
Cotransport (symport)
Term used to describe when the 2nd molecule is going in the opposite direction as the primary transport also known as the sodium potassium pump
Countertransport (aniport)
Cell engulfing large particles
Engulfment of large particulate matter too big to move - ex hunk of rock
Endocytosis of liquid matter - engulfment of smaller liquid molecules
Opening up of cell membrane and getting rid of matter - ex: neurotransmitters - larger quantities trying to get out
Name for when blood is filtered in the nephrons of the kidney
Interaction of all the cells of the body operating in harmony
The two major direct communications used when cells act in harmony
Nervous system and hormonal system communication
Chemicals released by one cell that have a specific effect on another cell
1 cell releasing something into the blood stream - affecting a distant cell
Hormonal communication
Cell releasing hormone - having an affect on a nearby cell
Paracrine communication
Microtubule in contact with a 2nd cell
Gap junction
A cell releasing a hormone like substance that will act on that cell
Autocine communication
What hormone is the only hormone that stimulates the nucleus?
Thyroid hormone
When a hormone can only act on a cell if there is an appropriate receptor in the cell membrane upon which it can fit
Cell membrane receptor site
Term for when a message gets to the membrane but doesn't enter it. Most hormones are these
First messenger
Chemical inside the cell that first messenger stimulated but doesn't go through the membrane - it was always there - most cells in our body have these
Second messenger
Message that goes from membrane to 2nd messenger and tells it what needs to be done
Signal transduction
What is the term when there is too much hormone and cells lose receptor sites?
Term for when there is not enough hormone substance and cell will increase the # of receptor sites
Charges on the membrane of a nerve cell that is not conducting a nerve impulse
Resting state
Outer surface of a cell membrane - positive or negative
positive charge
Inner surface of a cell membrane - positive or negative
negative charge
Electrical difference between outter and inner potential energy with opposite charges on either side of the membrane
Membrane potential
Small openings for ions to pass through quicker
Ion channels
Active process across cell membrane that keeps sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside - 3 sodiums for every 2 potassiums
Sodium Potassium pump
What is the Nernst Equation used to calculate equilibrium potential across a membrane- need to know this for Boards
EMF (electro mode of force) in mV = -61 x ion concentration on inside / ion concentration on the outside
A nerve cell that contains a nucleus
The production of a nerve impulse carried along a nerve cell
Most of the nerve tissue in our body is made up of supporting cells called...
Long process carrying nerve transmission away from the body
Nucleus expanded portion of the nerve body
Cell body
Short process carrying nerve transmission towards the body
Nerve cell in it's inactive state positive on outside and negative on the inside
Resting membrane potential
Energy mechanism that maintains polarity keeping outer membrane positive
NA/K pump
Nerve cell in a resting inactive state postive on ouotside neg on inside of cell membrane
Polarized neuron
Cell can have resting membrane potential that varies - what is the configuration
-30 mV to -90mV
Term for when the pump is disturbed and it switches charges
Momentary destabilization of the NA/K pump
The part of the pump that is destabilized
Depolarized neuron
When there is a reverse across the membrane step by step by step
Action potential
Alters the charge to a certain level before sodium pump will kick in
Threshold potential
Time between when neuron will react a 2nd time
Refractory period
When there is a minimal amount of time before anything can happen
Absolute refractory period
A partial inaffective stimulation
Relative refractory period
The thicker the neuron the _____ the the current
Fatty substance that insulates an axon
Bare areas between the myelin
Nodes of Ranvier
Areas of depolirization that can jump from node to node to node
Saltatory conduction
What is the disease in which myelin covering is lost?
What is described as a fight or flight?
White matter
Why is white matter white
Lipids cause this
1st neuron carrying nerve impulse
Presynaptic neuron
1 neuron stimulates 2nd neuron
Chemical disruption of sodium pump
Chemical synapse
Space between bags holding chemical
Transmitter vesicles
Chemical in bags that go through membrane
Transmitter molecules AKA neurotransmitters
Secific receptors for that neuro transmitter
Postsynaptic receptors