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87 Cards in this Set

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GLIAL CELLS
IN THE CNS, SUPPORTING CELLS, DIVIDE BY MITOSIS
CELL BODY OF NEURON
(PERIKARYON), NUTRITION CENTER, CELL BODIES WITHIN CNS CLUSTERED INTO NUCLEI AND IN PNS IN GANGLIA.
DENDRITES
PROVIDE RECEPTIVE AREA, TRANSMIT ELECTRICAL IMPULSES TO CELL BODY
AXON
CONDUCTS IMPULSES AWAY FROM CELL BODY
AXOPLASMIC FLOW-SLOWER, PROTEINS AND OTHER MOLECULES ARE TRANSPORTED BY RHYTHMIC CONTRATIONS TO NERVE ENDINGS
AXONAL TRANSPORT
MORE RAPID, EMPLOYS MICTROTUBLE FOR TRANSPORT, MAY OCCURIN ORTHOGRADE OR RETROGRADE DIRECTION, VERY SELECTIVE
AXON HILLOCK
ORIGIN OF AXON NEAR CELL BODY IS EXPANDED REGION WHERE NERVE IMPULSES ORIGINAT.
FUNCTIONS OF NEURONS
BASED UPON DIRECTION IMPULSES CONDUCTED. SENSORY OR AFFERENT-CONDUCT IMPULSES FROM SENSORY RECEPTORS INTO CNS. MOTOR OR EFFERENT-CONDUCT IMPULSES OUTOF CNS TO EFFECTOR ORGANS. EX-MUSCLES AND GLANDS
2 TYPES OF MOTOR NEURONS: SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC
SOMATIC-REFLEX AND VOLUNTARY CONTROL OF SKELETAL MUSCLES.
AUTONOMIC-INNERVATE (SEND AXONS TO) THE INVOLUNTARY EFFECTORS (SMOOTH MUSCLE, CARDIAC M., GLANDS)
SYMPATHETIC..."FIGHT OR FLIGHT"
-INCREASE E EXPENDITURE. EX. WHEN YOURE SCARED...PUPILS GET BIGGER, INCREASE HEART RATE
PARASYMPATHETIC
STOPS CARING WHEN YOURE SCARED. WHEN YOURE NOT SCARED ANYMORE, YOU HAVE TO P. CAUSES YOUR MOUTH TO BE DRY.
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS
BASED ON THE # OF PROCESSES THAT WXTEND FROM CELL BODY.
PSEUDOUNIPOLAR:SHORT SINGLE PROCESS THAT BRANCHES LIKE A T(SENSORY n.)
BIPOLAR NEURONS:HAVE 2 PROCESSESS (RETINA OF EYE)
MULTIPOLAR:HAVE SEVERAL DENDRITES AND 1 AXON (MOTOR NEURON)
PNS SUPPORTING CELLS
SCHWAAN CELLS: ACT AS PHAGOCYTES, AS THE DISTAL NEURONAL PORTION DEGENERATES. SURROUNDED BY BASEMENT MEMBRANE, FORM REGENERATION TUBE:SERVE AS GUIDE FOR AXON, SEND OUT CHMICALS THAT ATTRACT THE GROWIN AXON, AXON TIP CONNECTED TO CELL BODY BEGINS TO GROW OWARDS DESTINATION.
M.S.
CAUSED BY DEGENERATED MYELIN SHEATHS ON AXONS.
CNS SUPPORTING CELLS
OLIGODENDROCYTES:
PROCESS OCCURS MOSTLY POSTNATALLY, EACH HAS EXTENSIONS THAT FORM MYELIN SHEATHS AROUND SEVERAL AXONS...INSULATION
NEUTROTROPHINS
PROMOTE NEURON GROWTH
NODES OF RANVIER
GAPS IN MYELINATED SHEATH, THRY PRODUCE NERVE IMPULSES
MYELINATED AXONS CONDUCT IMPULSES MORE RAPIDLY
CNS SUPPORTING CELLS
ASTROCYTES-
MOST ABUNDANT GLIAL CELL, VASCULAR PROCESSES TERMINATE IN END-FEET THAT SURROUND TE CAPILLARIES, STIMULATE TIGHT JUNCTIONS, CONTRIBUTING TO BLOOD-BARRIER, REGULATE
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF K AND pH, TAKE UP K FROM ECF(EXTRA CELL. FLUID), NTs RELEASED FROM AXONS, AND LACTIC ACID (CONVERT FOR ATP PRODUCTION). OTHER
EXTENSIONS ADJACENT TO SYNPSES-FEW SYNAPSES FORM IN THE ABSENSE OF ASTROCYTES, THOSE THAT DO ARE DEFECTIVE.
ASTROCYTE END FEET
SURROUNDIGN BLOOD CAPILLARIES TAKE UP GLUCOSE FROM THE BLOOD. GLUCOSE IS METABOLIZED INTO LACTIC ACID OR LACTATE(RELEASED AND USED AS E...ATP.)
CNS SUPPORTING CELLS
MICROGLIA-PHAGOCYTES, MIGRATORY
EPENDYMAL CELLS-SECRETE CSF, LINE VENTRICLES, FUNCTION AS NEURAL STEM CELLS, CAN DIVIDE AND PROGENY DIFFERENTIATE.
LIVING SHEATH OF SCHWANN CELLS
AKA- neurilemma, found in PNS. myelin sheathsin cns are formed by oligodendrocytes. they have extensions lide an octopus, they form myelin sheaths around several axons.
ACh as a NT
ACh is bot an exc. and inhib. NB, depending on organ. opens the chem. gated ion chanels.
Nicotinic ACh receptor
found in auton. ganglia and sdeletal muscle. stimulates muschle contraction
Muscarinic ACh receptors
found in the plasma memb. of smooth and cardia muscle cells
Ligand operated ACh channels
nost direct mechanism, ion channel runs through receptor. Receptro has 5 polypeptide subunits that enclose ion channel. 2 subunits contain Ach. Channel opens when both sites bind to Ach. permits diffusionof Na into and K out of postsyn. cell, inward flow on Na dominates . Produces EPSPs
G protein poerated ACh channel
only 1 subunit. ion channes are separate proteins located away from the receptors. binding of Ach activates alpha G protein subunit. Alpha subunit dissociates. alpha subunit or the beta gamma complex diffuses throught membrane until it binds to ion channel, opening it.
AChE
enzyme that inactvates ACh. present on post memb or immediatley outside the memb. prevent continued stimulation
ACh in CNS
Cholinergic neurons use ACh as NT, axon bouton synapses with dendrites or cell body of anothyer neuron, 1st VG channels are located at axon hillock.
Curar
ACh in Pns
used as muscle relaxant by competing with ACh for attachment tothe nicotinic ACh receptor and thus reduces the size of hte end-plate potentials
monoamines as NT
EP-adrenalin, NEP, Serotonin-released from blood (derived from tryptophan) vessels, dopamine-effects kidneys...derived from tyrosine
monomines as NT
released by exocytosis from presynaptic vesicles, diffuse across the synaptic cleft, interact with specific receptors in postsyn. memb
inhibition of monoamines as NT
reuptake of monoamines into presyn. memb. Enzymatic degradation of monoamines in presyn. memb. by MAO (used to break down Ep and NEp in postsn.
MAO inhibitors
treat depression, block NT breakdown, keep NTs in synapse longer
Mechanism of MAO Action
monoamine NT do not directly open ion channels, act thru 2nd messenger (cAMP). Binding of NEP stimulates dissociation of G protein alpha subunit. Alpha subunit binds to adenylate cyclase, converting ATP to cAMP, this activates protein kinase, phosphorylating other proteins. open ion channels
Seratonin as NT
NT (derived from L tryptophen), fro neurons with cell bodies in raphe nuclei, regulation of mood behavior appetite and cerebral circulation, SSRIs (seratonin specific reuptake inhibitors)-inhibit reuptake and destrucion of seratonin, prolonging the action of NT, used as an antidepressant
Dopamine as NT
NT for neurons with cell bodies in midbrain. Axons project into Nigrostriatal dopamine syst. and Mesolimbic dopamine syst.
Nigrostriatal dopamine syst.
neurons in substantia nigra send fiber to corpus straitum, inhibition of skel. muschle movement, Parkinsons-degeneration of neurons in substantia nigra
mesolimbic dopamine syst.
neurons originate in midbrain, send axons to limbic (forbrain) syst., involvedin behavior and reward, addictive drugs
NE (norepinephren) as NT
NT in both PNS and CNS (just like ACh), PNS-smooth muscle, cardiac, and glands-increase in blood pressure, contricions of arteries. CNS-general behav.
Amino Acids as NT
glutamic acid and aspartic acid: major exc. NT in CNS. Glutamic acid:NMDA receptor involved in memory. Glycine: inhibitory (IPSP), helps control sk. muscle, opening of Cl channels in post.
Amino Acids as NT cont.
GABA: most prevalent NT in brain, inhibitory, produces IPSPs. involved in motor control
Benzodiazepines
increase GABA activity, ingibits musc. spasms, treat anxiety and insmnia. ex...valum
Polypeptides an NT
CCK-secreted from Sm. intestin, promotes satiety. Substance P: major NT in sensations of pain. Synaptic plasticity (neuromod. effects): neurons can release classical NT or the polypeptide NT
Polypeptides as NT:
Endogenous opiods
brain produces its own analgesic endogenous morphine like compounds, blocking release of substance P. Ex: the joggers high
Poly as NT:
Neuropeptide Y
most abundant neuropeptide in brain
ingibits lutamate in hippocampus
powerful stimulator of appetite
Poly as NT
NO
exerts its effects by stimulaton of cGMP(acts like 2 messenger), macrophages release NO to help kill bacteria, inbolbed in memory and learning, smooth muscle relaxation (penis erection)
Synaptic integration
ESPS can summate, producing AP
Synaptic integration
Spatial Summation
numerous boutons converge on a single post. neuron (distance).
Synaptic Integration
Temporal summation
successive waves of neurotransmitter release (time)
AP
produced by an increase in Na permeability. After short delay, increase in K permeability
depol and repol
occur thru diffusion
long term potentiation
transmission along frequently used neuralpathways, high frequency stimulation: enhancing excitability of synapse, improves efficacy of synaptic transmission, neuaral pathwasy in hippocampus use glutamate (memory and learning)
Gray matter
consists of neuron cell bodies and dendrites
white matter
myelin, consists of axon tracts
cerebrum
(telencephalon), 80% of brain, high mental functons
corpus collasum (found in cerebrum)
major tract of axons that functionlly interconnects right and left
cerebral cortex
numerous convolutions (gyri and sulci) contains the 4 lobes
insula
memory encoding, cardiovascular response to stress
parietal
perception of somatestetic sensation, highest densiities or receptors
temporal
auditory centers receive sensory fibers from coclea, interpretation and association of auditory and visual info
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
measures synaptic porentials produced at cell bodies and dendrites, create elect. currents. Used clinically to diagnose epilepsy and brain death
EEG Patterns
Alpha
recorded from parietal and occ gegions, person is wake eyes closed. 10-12 cylces/sec
Beta
strongest fro mfrontal lobes, produced by visual stimuli and mental activity, evoked activity 13-25
Theta
emitted from temporal and occ obes, common in newborn, adult indicates emotional stress 5-8
Delta
Emitted in a gen. pattern, common drug slep and awake infanst . in adult indicates braind damage 1-5
EEG, 2 types
REM
dreams,low amplitude, high frequency oscilations (beta)
reward and punishmeht
hypoth and frontal cortex
hippocampus
critical component of memory. acquisition of new info reqires temp. lobe and hippocmapus.
NT is glutamate and glycine
BRAIN REGIONS
Forebrain
Telencephalon-Cerebrum

Diencephalon-thalamus:acts primarily as a relya center for sensory info to get to cerebrum
Midbrain
Mesencephalan-s. nigra, red nucleus,
Hindbrain
Metencephanlon-pons and cerebellum
Myelencephalon-medulla oblongata
Thalamus
acts as a relay center thru which all snesory info except olfactory (smell) passes to cerebrum
Epithalamus
contains choroid plexus where CSF is formed, Pineal gland whch secretes melatonin
Hypothalamus
neural centers for hunger, thirst and body temp., contributes to teh reg. of sleep, wakefulness, emotionss, sex arousal, fear, pain, produces ADH and oxytocin, coordinates sym and para reflexes
PITUITARY GLAND
posterior piruitary:(neurohypophysis), stores and releases ADH and oxytocin
Hypothalamus
produces realeasing and ingibiting hormones tha are transported to anterior pituitary, reg. secretions of anterior hormones
Anterior Pit.
regulates secretion of hormones of other endocrine glands.
midbrain
Substantia Nigra-required for motor coordination
HINDBRAIN
Pons
surface fibers connect to cerebellum adn deeper fibers are part of motor and sensory tracts, contains the resp. centers.
Cerebellum
receive input from proprioceptors , participates in cordination of movement...bringing a fork to mouth
Myelencephalon (medulla oblongata)
all descending and ascending fiber tracts betw. sp. cord and brain must pass thru the medulla
CRANIAL AND SPINAL NERVES
Cranial
2 pairs from neuron cell bodies in forbrain, 10 pairs arise from mid brain dn hinbrain, most are mixed nerves (sensory and motor)
Spinal
31 pairs, produces 2 roots to each nerve:dorsal root composed of sensory fibersand vetral root composed of motor fibers
Division of ANS
sympathetic nervous syst. and parasympathetic have preganglionic neurons that originate in CNS and postganglionic neurons that originate outside of the CNS in ganglia
Sympathetic
preganglionic neuron are short and release Ach.
Postganglionic are long, nicotinic receptor, release NE at smooth muscle and glands, and ACh at sweat glands
Parasympathetic
preganglionic neurons are short, release Ach to adrenal medulla, no postganglionic neuron
Adrenal medulla
secretes EP, and NE into circulation