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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Loudness is measured in.???
What is loudness
Loudness is a function of the amplitude of sound waves. Conversation-is 60 dec
hearing loss-80 dec
ear can differ 0.1-0.5
What is picked up by the tympanic membrane?
compression of air molecules and no air molecules.
hydrogen ions


opens Ca channels

neuron transmitter released

sensory neuron stimulated.


opens ca channels

neurotransmitter released..

Sensory neuron stimulated.
What is the fifth taste?
UMAMI...stimulated by glutamate
Smell (olfaction)
needs moist enviroment molecules have to be moisten to smell.
more sens--more molecules.
Tuffed cell
secondary neuron...if cells are displaced you will lose your smell....Lumbic system.
human's can distinguish ..
10,000 odors.
Sense of many are there?
2...static...and dynamic
Static equibrium
up/down on a elevator
Dynamic equilbrium
Outer ear??
External auditory meatus
middle ear
ear drum to blue complex (pea-size)
What are inner structures?
Vestibular (sense of EQ)
Cochlea-sense of hearing.
back of the throat has what?
auditory tube-inflammation earaches..bacteria from mouth...

yawning opens auditory tube. (bone of skull)
Sound waves vary in pitch, loudness
Pitch is what?
the fuckion of the freq of the sound waves.
What is sound freq
it is measured in waves/sec...range is 20-20,000 HZ
What is acute hearing
b/t 1000-3000 hz waves/sec
Back of the tongue is for???
Spoiled foods!
Your taste..
will come back...basal cells will reproduce...but the older you get the less you can taste.
Taste Transduction........Bitter!
Receptor cell--affects G protein (gustducin)...

which affects enzyme (phospholipase c)

IP3 Releases Ca+++ calcium encourages excocytosis or release of neurotransmiter....sensory neuron stimulated.
Receptor--G Protein-affects enzyme adenylate aylase--which CAMP....produces closes of K channels...depolarization....neurotransmitter released.
What do chemoreceptors due?
Taste (gustatory)
Sweet can be sensed where?
Throughout the whole tongue?
What are three structure classifications?
A. General (somatic)
B. Special (ear organs)
C. simple (naked nerve endings)
What are two types of Responses?
Quick adapting and slow adapting.
What are receptors classified as?
according to their stimulus
What are receptors?
Receptors are transducers that convert stimuli into electrical signals.
What are therermoreceptors?
heat-that causes action potentials.
What are mechanoreceptors?
Pressure and sound that cause APs
What are chemoreceptors?
Molecular structure or ph/oxygen or organic molecules generate AP to let your body know the concentration.
What are nociceptors?
Pain receptors...that cause ATP.
What is the "law of specific nerve energies?
each receptor is specific for a particular form of energ. This type of energy is the normal stimulus.
What is a adequate stimulus?
the minimal amound of energy to reach threshold and generate a action potential.
What do rods do?
Rods allow to see black and white.
What do cones do?
Let us see color.
What is one candle power?
it is the adequate stimulus. This can turn into a action potential.
What does circuity do?
helps us see where the energy is being perceived.
Sensory input requires...
Sensory receptors----receptive fields
Sensory Receptors
Are simple nueral receptors..have mylinated nueron..have dendrite endings...The AXON HILOCK IS WHERE THE AP IS. Also, have a dorsal root gang.
What are complex neural receptors?
They have a pacinian corpuscle. Action potential to CNS.
Special sensory receptors
can be mylinated...have a ephithetal cell...They have a trigger zone by ephithetal and at the trigger zone...ap neurotransmitter is triggered here.
Where do sensory stimuli trigger action potentials?
in primary sensory nuerons.
What do sensory nuerons do in the spinal cord?
they synapse onto interneurons (secondary sensory neurons.
Rate is 1:1 b/t 1 & 2 sensory neurons.
What do the interneurons do?
they extend their axons to other regions of the spinal cord or brain...they may synapse with 3rd order neurons.
if their is a third order neuron it will be in where?
The sharpening of sensation is due to what?
Lateral inhibition (neural pathways from receptors)
What is sensation-
results when sensory stimulation reaches the cortex.
What is the perception?
perception is the understanding of sensation.
How many receptive fields are there?
What is a large receptive field?
When dedritic endings extend over large area. Ap goes through to the CNS.
Small receptive fields
means less discrimination=less sensitivity.

Greater discrimination=greater sensitivity.
What do finger have?
Small receptive fields.
Lateral inhibitation
The middle one is giving the sensation of the pushing only. Middle one sends message to brain and gives info about size and duration of pressure. You interpet the strength of stimulus by the amound of AP.
What is the minimal stimulus required to activate a receptor?
intensity and duration of stimulus is like the frequency of Ap in primary sensory neurons.
Receptor adaptation...describes the decline of the generator potential.
What is tonic receptors?
slow adapting
What is phasic receptors?
Fast adapting