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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Physiology
the science of body function; the study of the phenomena of living things
Cells
smallest living units; independently capable of carrying out its own basic life processes; specialized to perform different functions important to the operation of the body as a whole; depend on each other for survival.
Erythrocytes
manufactured by bone marrow; carry oxygen in bloodstream
Bone marrow
a tissue found in certain bones
Erythropoietin
hormone that regulates the # of erythrocytes in blood; secreted by kidneys
4 major cell types
neurons, muscle cells, epithelial cells, and connective tissue cells
Neurons
specialized to transmit info. in the form of electrical signals; receive and transmit signals to other cells. Some send signals to muscles, glands, and other organs, enabling the control of movement, hormone secretion, and other body functions.
Muscle fibers
are generally elongated in shape and are specialized to contract, there by generating mechanical force and movement. Under voluntary control (skeletal muscle), under involuntary control (cardiac muscle), and blood vessels (smooth muscle).
Epithelial Cells
– continuous, sheetlike layer of cells in combination with a thin underlying layer of noncellular material called basement membrane. Some are specialized to transport specific materials, such as inorganic ions, organic molecules, or water, from on e location to another.
Basement membrane –
may be one cell thick or several cells thick, and may vary in shape. Could be short and flat, or tall and oblong. All joined closely together to form a barrier that prevent material on one side of the epithelium from mixing with other side.
Lumen
epithelial cells are found here; lining of hollow fluid organs such as the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels where they separate fluids in the interior cavity from the surrounding body fluids
Glands
made from epithelial cells; organs specialized in the synthesis and secretion of a product. Two types: endocrine and exocrine glands.
Endocrine glands
secrete hormones; ex. Pit. Gld. and adrenal gland.
Exocrine glands
secrete a product into a duct leading to the ext. environment. Ex. Sweat glands and Salivary glands.
Hormones
chemicals that communicate a message to cells of the body, into the bloodstream.
Connective tissue cells
most diverse; includes blood cells, bone cells, fat cells, and many other kinds of cells; primary function is to provide physiological support for others structures, to anchor them in place, or to link together. Ex. Tendons, ligaments, and bones.
Tendons
anchor muscles to bones
Ligament
connects bones together
Extracellular matrix
makes up conn tissue; dense meshwork of proteins and other large molecules. Made up elastin and collagen
Elastin
make up extracellular matrix; long fibrous proteins; gives the tissue elasticity
Collagen
which gives the tissue tensile strength, ability to resist stretching
Connective tissue
in a more broad sense encompasses fluids such as the blood and lymph, which do not provide structural support, connect the various part of the body providing communication.
Blood
delivers O2 from lungs to the rest of the body’s tissues and carries hormones from glands that secrete them to the tissues that respond to them.
Lymph
carries H20 and other materials that leak out of blood vessels throughout the body and returns them to the blood.
Tissue
a collection of cells performing similar functions
Organs
are two or more tissue combined to make up structures that perform particular functions
Organ systems
collection of organs that work together to perform certain functions.
Endocrine system (Organs)
Hypothalamus, Pit. Gld., Adrenal gld., Thyroid gld., Parathyroid gld., Thymus, and Pancreas.
Endocrine system (Function)
Provide communication btwn. cells of the body through the release of hormones into the bloodstream.
Nervous system (organs)
Brain, Spinal cord, Peripheral nerves
Nervous system (function)
Provide communication btwn. cells of the body throught electrical signals and the release of neurotransmitters into small gaps btwn. certain cells.
Musculoskeletal system (organs)
Skeletal muscle, bones, tendons, ligaments
Cardiovascular system (organs)
Heart, blood vessels, and blood
Respiratory system (organs)
Lungs, Pharynx, Trachea, Bronchi
Urinary system(organs)
Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, Urethra
Gastrointestinal system (organs)
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, Large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder
Reproduction system (organs)
Gonads, Reproductive tracts and glands
Immune system (organs)
WBC, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, adenoids
Integumentary system (organs)
Skin
Musculoskeletal system (F)
Support the body
allow voluntary movement of the body
allow facial expressions
Cardiovascular system (F)
Transport molecules throughout body into bloodstream
Respiratory system (F)
Bring oxygen into the body and eliminate carbon dioxide from the body
Urinary system (F)
Filter the blood to regulate acidity, blood volume, and ion concentrations
eliminates wastes
Gastrointestinal system (F)
Break down food and absorb it into the body
Reproduction system (F)
Generate offspring
Immune system (F)
Defend the body against pathogens and abnormal cells
Integumentary system (F)
Protect the body from the external environment