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53 Cards in this Set

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What are the 7 respiratory system funcions?
1. Deliver 02 and other gases to cells of body.
2. Remove C02 and other waste gases from cells of body.
3. Filter air.
4. Warm air.
5. Humidify air.
6. Control pH (chemical homeostasis)
7. speech/smell (not actually functions of resp system per se)
DRFWHCS
What is the nose mostly comprised of and what does it protect
It's mainly comprised of cartilage and it protects the opening into the throat or the pharynx.
ear, throat opening
What divides the nasal cavity and what is its function?
NAsal Semptum, Functions of nasal cavity = warming and moistening of air, due to its narrowness and rich blood supply (reason some prone to nosebleeds)
What are the air cavities in the bone called and what are the 3 functions?
Sinuses, 3 main functions: 1. produce mucus 2.lighten skull 3. act as resonation chamber for speech
What happens when the sinus gets infected?
bacterial growth and inflammation (sinusitis)
What acts as both an air and food water passageway?
The Pharynx
What are the 3 sets of tonsils?
o There are actually 3 sets:
o ADENOIDS or PHARYNGEAL tonsils (which may swell causing “mouth breathing” and have to be removed)
o PALATINE (the ones most often removed and found near back in oral cavity)
o LINGUAL, located on tongue near back of throat
What is the epiglottis?
small tissue flap that covers larynx and prevents food from going down it and entering trachea)
What is a muscular tube tube with C-shaped cartilage rings for some flexibility?
Trachea
What is tracheotomy?
o Tracheotomy= incision in trachea to facilitate breathing/to remove excess mucus
When does smoker's cough occur?
when cilia in trachea damaged by cigarette smoke toxins. They break off and cannot effectively remove debris. To accommodate, body produces extra mucus, which clogs lungs and must be cleared out after lying horizontally all night.
What does the bronchus consist of? What's different about the right bronchus?
Consists of cartilage rings w/ ciliated epithelial tissue, It's larger and straighter.
what are the bronchioloes?
BRONCHIOLES = smaller tube-like divisions of bronchi which resemble tiny tree branches becoming successively smaller and smaller
What is the alveoli? And why are they important?
lung air sacs which compose bulk of lining and give spongy texture. THey're site of gas exchange
Around how big are the lungs stretched out?
A tennis court
What are the 7 primary structures of the lungs?
1. alveoli
2. alveolar ducts
3. bronchioles
4. bronchi
5. blood vessels
6. epithelial and connective tissues
Visceral Pleura
VISCERAL PLEURA = thin membrane that covers outside of lungs to protect/moisten it
What is the surfactant and what does it do?
SURFACTANT = lipoprotein chemical forming layer over fluid on surface of alveoli, it reduces surface tension and keeps the lungs from collapsing
What is the "respiratory center"
The medulla
Aim of the respiratory system?
maintain homeostasis to cope with changes in environment
What are the 4 fuctions of the mucus membrane?
a. purifying air via trapping debris that is inhaled (cilia, vibrissae)
b. Forming mucus or sputum (about 125 ml per day)
c. Saturating air w/ water (H20) to humidify it
d. breathing is known as “pulmonary ventilation”
What are some reasons air moves in and out
-pressure gradient exists between air inside lungs and air outside lungs
-Air is lower in pressure in one place w/ respect to other
-As in diffusion, air will move from area of higher pressure to lower pressure
Air in atmosphere exerts how much pressure?
760 mmHg (millimeters mercury) or 1
ATM (atmosphere) or 14.7 (roughly 15) lbs/in^2 at sea level
When does inhilation or inspiration occur?
when atmospheric pressure
OUTSIDE lungs is greater than alveolar pressure INSIDE lungs
When does exhalation occur?
when alveolar pressure INSIDE lungs is
greater than pressure OUTISDE the lungs
What does boyle's law state?
VOLUME of a gas is inversely proportional (varies
inversely) to its PRESSURE at a constant temperature
How many breaths per minute does the average person take?
12-18 breaths/minute
What is an instrument which measures VOLUME of air exchanged in pulmonary
ventilation
a spirometer
What is tidal volume?
volume of air exhaled after normal/typical inhalation (normal
quiet breathing
What is ERV?
EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME volume of air that can be forced out
after tidal volume has been exhaled.
What is INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME (IRV):
volume of air that can be forcibly
inspired (inhaled) above a normal inhalation
What is VITAL CAPACITY (VC): the formula?
largest volume of air that can be moved into and out of
lungs.
VC = IRV + ERV + TV
What are some factors that affect the VC?
age, gender (females have 20-25% the VC of
males), height, weight, posture, chest/thorax size, health, and blood volume
What is the residual volume? RV What can cause loss of RV
Air that is always in the alveoli to keep them inflated.
Only certain circumstances such as drowning or lung collapse cause loss of RV
MINIMAL VOLUME (MV):
Air that will always stay in the lungs even after the RV is gone
What is the Total Lung Capacity? Formula?
Total Volume of air a lung can hold
TLC =TV + IRV + ERV + RV
What do the pons and medulla do?
- PONS + MEDULLA: keep rhythm of respiration while CEREBRAL CORTEX of cerebrum helps you voluntarily speed up/slow down respiration (ex: hyperventilation)
What happens when there is too much CO2
Too much C02 detected (increase partial pressure of C02 or “PC02”), Medulla sends message to speed up diaphragm contraction to vent off excess C02. Opposite occurs with too little C02.
What happens in EMPHYSEMA? What are some causes?
Alveoli stretch out and lose surface area as they enlarge. Cause = mucus buildup from smoking/ sever pollution. There's a loss of surface area
What is PNEUMONIA? Some symptoms?
Usually occurs as secondary infection after having cold, bronchitis, flu. Symptoms:Alveoli become inflamed; may cough up blood, have high temp, pain in breathing, etc.
TUBERCULOSIS "consumption"
calcified lesions from in lungs, difficulty breathing, coughing up blood
Asthma
Hard to move air in and out, feels tight in chest· Has increased 75% in adults since 1980 and 180% in infants (in Marin).
HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA
Altered blood flow to body parts s/a brain, and lungs causes lungs to fill w/ fluid, and other symptoms.· If untreated: headache, nausea, shortness of breath, bad cough, hallucinations, coma death
PLEURISY
Inflammation of visceral pleura membrane surrounding lungs
Causes= bacterial or viral infection
LUNG CANCER
uncontrolled cell growth appears in various layers of lung tissue
PNEUMONIC PLAGUE:
Caused by bacterium which is inhaled + settles in lungs
Very deadly – 90% mortality rate
Hyperventilation
· Increased rate of breathing due to an increased demand for 02 caused by exercise or stress OR due to an excess of C02 in blood caused by diseases s/a diabetes, emphysema
FAINTING
· Occurs because there is decreased blood flow to brain due to drop in C02 levels (controlled by chemoreceptors). As C02 levels drop, so does blood pressure and blood flow to brain
PNEUMOTHORAX (Collapsed Lung):
· Occurs when air enters pleural cavity due to bullet wound, knife wound/other trauma, air embolism or other conditions (air pressure not maintained)
EUPNEA
Normal breathing at rest:
HYPOXIA
State of lowered 02 in blood (causes include diseases and high altitude)
HYPOVENTILATION:
· Decreased breathing resulting in elevated levels C02, causes carbon monoxide, cyonide poisoning
Apnea percentage of snorers
80 percent