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120 Cards in this Set

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Year and Scientist Foundation for modern atomic theory, elements composed of identical elements, react same way chemically
1808 Dalton
Year and Scientist
Discovery - if element arranged in increased atomic mass, periodic repetition of similar chemical properties occured
1858 Dimitri Mendeleev
Whose work resulted in the first periodic table of elements
Dimitri Mendeleev
As of today how many elements have been identified,how many naturally occur, and how many are naturally produced
112 elements identified
92 naturally occurring
20 artificially produced
the smallest partical that has all the properties of an element
ATOM
Responsible for showing the elements could be classified according to integral vaules of atomic mass
1808 John Dalton
Showed that if elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, a periodic repetition of similiar properties occurred
Who discovered this, how many elements were identified and what did finding result in?
1858 Dmitiri Mendelev
65 Elements identified
Resulted in Periodic Table
While investigating cathode rays (electrons) demonstrated electrons were an integral part of all atoms
1890 JJ Thomson
When were atoms considered indivisible
1890
Demonstrated electrons equaled the number of positive charges
1890 JJ Thomson
Described the atom as having a small dense, positively charged center, surrounded by a negative cloud of eletrons
1911 Ernest Rutherford
Called the center of the atom the nucleus
1911 Ernest Rutherford
Described the atom as a miniature solar system
1913 Niels Bohr
Stated Atom contains a small, dense, postively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons that revolve in fixed, well defined orbits about the nucleus"
1913 Niels Bohr
The atom is essentially what kind of space?
EMPTY
Positively charged bodies with weight, located in the nucleus
Protons
Located in the nucleus, has weight but no charge
Neutrons
Revolving around the nucleus in designated orbits, negatively charged bodies with very little weight
electrons
Holds protons and neutrons together in nucleus
Quarks and Gluons
is very small but contains nearly all the mass (energy) of the atom
Nucleus
In atomic nomenclature, the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Z number
Subscript on the periodic chart
Atomic Z Number
Determines the chemical identify of an atom
Atomic Z Number
In atomic nomenclature, the number of protons plus number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass Number (A)
Protons and neutrons in nucleus
NUCLEONS
2000 times the weight of an electron
Nucleons
Primary difference is the charge in the particle
Protons and Neutrons
Fundamental particles of an atom are:
Electron, Proton and Neutron
Superscript on the periodic table
Atomic Mass Number (A) = Protons + Neutrons
Subscripts on periodic table
Atomic Number = Number of protons
Sharing of electrons
Covalent bonding
Electron is given up to another atom that has a deficiency in electrons
Ionic Bonding
In the atom certain shells represent...
Different electron energy levels
Designed K,L,M,N,O and so forth
Electron Shells
The closer an electron is to the nucleus the ....
Higher the binding energy
No outer shell can contain more than ...
eight electrons
In their normal state atoms are
electrically neutral, the electric charge on the atom is zero
THE REMOVAL OR ADDITION OF AN ORBITAL ELECTRON FROM AN ATOM
IONIZATION
IONIZATION CAN NOT OCCUR BY THE ADDITION OR REMOVAL OF A PROTON BECAUSE ...
REMOVAL OF A PROTON WOULD CHANGE THE TYPE OF ATOM
Alteration in the number of neutrons ...
does not ionize and atom because a neutron is neutral
Ionized atom is a/an
Ion
FORCE THAT KEEPS AN ELECTRON IN ORBIT IS THE
CENTRIPETAL FORCE
Center seeking force
Centripetal force
The strength of attachment of an electron to the nucleus is called the ....
Electron Binding Energy
Smallest particle of an element
Atom
SMALLEST PARTICLE OF A COMPOUND
MOLECULE
Forms an element having the same number of protons (Z) but different number of neutrons (A)
Isotopes
Not all isotopes are....
Radioactive
All radioisotopes are
Radioactive
Another term for radioisotope
Radionuclide
Radioactive decay is what type of process?
Random .. We can never know when a radioactive atom will emit its radiation
Radioactive decay is discussed in terms of ....
Probability
Only 2 decay process radiology concerned with
Beta Emission and Alpha Emission
A NATURALLY OCCURRING PROCESS WHEREBY AN UNSTABLE ATOMIC NUCLEUS RELIEVES ITS INSTABILITY THROUGH THE EMISSION OF ONE OR MORE ENERGETIC PARTICLES
RADIOACTIVE DECAY
The process by which the nucleus spontaneously emits particles and energy and transforms itself into another atom to reach stability
Radioactive Disintegration
Electron "CREATED IN THE NUCLEUS" is ejected from the nucleus with considerable kinetic energy escapes from the atom
Beta emission
OCCURS MORE OFTEN THAN ALPHA EMISSION
BETA EMISSION
Ionizing radiation with characterisitics of an electron; emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom
Beta Particle
Particulate form of ionizing radiation consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. The nucleus of helium. Emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom.
Alpha Particle
Time required for a quantity of radioactivity to be reduced to half its original value
Physical half-life
Radiation distinct from xrays and gamma rays; examples are alpha particle, electrons, neutrons and protons
Particulate Radiation
Oscillating electric and magnetic fields that travel in a vacum with the velocity of light, includes xrays, gamma rays and some non-ionizing such as ultraviolet, visible, infrared and radio waves
Electromagnetic radiation
xrays, gamma rays, sound waves, magnetic waves
Electromagnetic Radiation
Penetrating power of alpha particulate
short
Penentrating power of beta particulate
limited
penetrating power of gamma, electromagnetic, xrays
unlimited
An alpha particle is equivalent to what atom
Helium atom 2 protons & 2 neutrons, Mass is 4 amu, carries 2 units of positive charge
What type of particle travels FAST and has short range in matter.
Alpha Particle
What type of particle absorbs quickly in matter
Alpha Particle
What particle has a high ionization power
Alpha Particle
What type of particle from an EXTERNAL source is nearly harmless, UNLESS inhaled, ingested, or enters the body through a cut in your skin
Alpha
Electron emitted FROM THE NUCLEUS of radioactive atom
Beta Emission
Light Particles, Mass number of 0, Carry one unit of negative charge, range in matter is LONGER than alpha rays, travels fast but slower than alpha
Beta Emission
Particles CAN NOT be stopped by a sheet of paper. Some can be stopped by human skin.
Beta Emission
if ingested some radionuclides emit what skin of particles that might be absorbed into bones and cause damage
Beta (beta particles would act like calcium deposits in the bone)
the only forms of ionizing electromagnetic radiation of radiologic interest
x-rays and gamma rays
What type of radiation causes severe damage to your internal organs
Xrays fall in this category but are less penetrating than gamma rays
xray released as a result of the PHOTOELECTRIC effect and whose discrete energies are determined by the respective electron binding energy
Characteristic XRAY
when photon radiation originates OUTSIDE the nucleus, as a result of an eletronic shell transition, the photon is referred to a a...
Characteristic XRAY
A "Characteristic xray" is termed as such because the ... is characterisitc of the element from which it originates
Energy
What is the difference between an xray and a gamma ray?
There is no difference except for their origin, X-RAYS originate from OUTSIDE the nucleus while GAMMAS originate from WITHIN the nucleus
X-Rays and Gamma Rays are often called ...
Photons
A Photon has NO mass and No charge; travel at the speed of light and are considered a ...... in space.
Disturbance
Gamma rays are usually associated with what types of emissions
Alpha and Beta
X-Rays and Gamma rays usually exist either at the speed of light or not at all; they have what type of range in matter
Unlimited
Gamma Rays are associated with what type of production.
Pair Production
Who described the "nuclear atom"
Rutherford
Who theorized uniform positive electrification
J.J. Thompson
The periodic table presents elements in order of ?
Atomic Number
APPROXIMATELY how many known elements are there?
100
The horizontal rows in the periodic table are called:
Periods
As you move from left to right across the periodic table, what happens to the number of outer-shell electrons from one element to the next?
It increases by 1
Which physicist had a major part in describing the atom as we know it today?
Bohr
Atoms with all electron shells filled are
chemically stable
In the periodic table of the elements, the group number identifies the ...
number of electrons allowed in the outer shell
Atoms that have the same atomic number are atoms of the same ...?
Element
The periodic chart of elements is attributed to
Dimitri Mendeleev
The atomic mass number of an atomis given by the number of ...
Protons plus neutrons
The atomic number is the ....
number of protons
A neutron has approximately ... amu and ... charge
1 amu and no charge
Electrons in the M-shell do not exceed ... in number
8
The binding energy of an eletron to nucleus is ... for an L-shell electron than for an M-shell electron
HIGHER
The number of protons in the nucleus is called the
Atomic Number
How many different types of nucleons are there?
2 - Proton and Neutron
What type of radiation can not penetrate a sheet of paper material?
An alpha particle
What is a particle accelerator used to produce radioisotopes?
Cyclotropes
A particle with a charge of -1.602x 10 to the -19th powerC
Beta particle
A stable atom that can be made radioactive
Gold
A substance composed of atoms with unstable nuclei
Radioactive
An atom that is naturally radioactive
Radioisotope // Uranium
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Isotope
Radioisotopes have what type of nuclei
Unstable
What are arranged in orbits around the nucleus
Electrons
In the air ? particles have a range of 1 - 10 cm
Alpha
What are the two principal classes of ioinizing radiation?
Particulate and electromagnetic
Given the general characteristics of ionizing radiation ...
all photons travel in straight lines, EVEN in the presence of magnetic fields.
As compared with particulate radiation , electromagnetic radiation is ...
more penetrating
Electromagnetic ionizing radiation from ....
both inside and outside the nucleus
xrays and gamma rays are both examples of electromagnetic radiation. In addition, they both have
no electrostatic charge
When comparing electromagnetic radiation with particulate radiation, both interact by ...
ionization and excitation