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93 Cards in this Set

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Energy Level
A region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are found. Only a certain number of electrons can be found in each energy level of an atom.
Neutron
An uncharged particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Proton
A subatomic particle identical with the nucleus of the hydrogen atom; found with neutrons in all atomic nuclei and carries a positive charge.
Electrons
A subatomic particle in an atom that's negatively charged and that occupies the energy levels in an atom; electrons are involed in chemical bonds and reactions.
Nucleus
The center core of an atom that has protons and neutrons.
Element
A substance that has only one kind of matter.
Atomic Mass
The average mass of all the known isotopes of an element.
Located at the top of a chemical symbol.
Symbol
Something that represents something else.
Atomic Number
The number of protons that an atom has. It's located at the bottom of a chemical symbol.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that can exist alone or in combination with other atoms.
Molecule
The smallest particle of a compound that retains the properties of the compound.
Compound
A substance that's made of 2 or more elements that can't be separated by physical means.
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Brittleness
A measure of a material's tendency to shatter upon impact.
Elasticity
A measure of a solid's ability to stretch and then return to its original shape and size.
Hardness
The measure of a solid's resistance to scratching.
Malleability
A solid's ability to be pounded into thin sheets
Density
A property that describes the relationship between mass and volume.
Condensation
The process by which a substance in its gaseous state loses energy and enters its liquid state; one phase of the water cycle.
Evaporation
The process by which a substance in its liquid state gains energy and enters its gaseous state; a phase of the water cycle.
Meniscus
The curved upper surface of a liquid column.
Mass
The measure of the inertia of an object; the amount of matter an object has.
Archimedes Principle
A principle that states that the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Buoyancy
A measure of the upward force a fluid exerts on an object.
Fluid
Non solid matter, atoms slide pass each other
ex; liquid/gas
Viscosity
A measure of a material's resistance to flow.
Valence electrons
The electrons in an atom that are involved in the formation of chemical bonds.
Ions
An atom that has an electrical charge.
Electronegativity
The attraction an atom has for the shared pair of electrons in a chemical bond.
Covalent Bond
A type of chemical bond that's formed when 2 atoms share electrons.
Ionic bond
A type of chemical bond between atoms that gained or lost electrons; a bond between ions.
Mass Number
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
a.k.a : atomic mass
Metal bond
A chemical bond between 2 or more atoms.
Octet Rule
States that atoms form bonds with other atoms by sharing or transferring them to complete their octet and become stable.
Binary compounds
Covalent compounds that are made of only 2 types of elements.
Polyatomic ions
Ions that have more than one type of atom.
Molecular formula
A chemical formula that gives the total number of atoms of each element present in a molecule.
Empirical formula
A chemical formula showing the simplest ratio of elements in a compound.
Diatomic molecules
A molecule that has only 2 atoms of the same element.
H^2~Have
N^2~No
F^2~Fear
O^2~Of
I^2~Ice
CL^2~Cold
Br^2~Beverages
Polymers
Large molecules that are made of repeating smaller molecules called subunits or monomers.
Monatomic ions
Ions that have only one type of atom.
Single Displacement
A reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound.
Double displcement
A reaction in which ions from 2 compounds in a solution exchange places to make 2 new compounds.
Decompositon reaction
A chemical reaction in which a single compound is broken down to make 2 or more smaller compounds.
Synthesis/ addition reaction
A chemical reaction in which 2 or more substances combine to form a new compound.
Combustion reaction
A reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen,releasing large amounts of energy in the form of heat and light.
Physical change
A change in the physical properties of a substance.
Chemical change
A change in a substance that involves the breaking and reforming of chemical bonds to make a new substance or substances.
Law of conservation of mass
States that the total mass of products of a reaction is equal to the total mass of reactants.
Products
Substances that are made in a chemical reaction from reactants.
Reactants
Substances that enter into and is altered in the course of a chemical reaction.
Limiting reactant
The reactant that's used up first in a chemical reaction.
Avogadro's Number
The number of atoms in the atomic mass of an element or the number of molecules in the formula mass of a compound when these masses are expressed in grams.
Mole
One set of 6.02x10^23 atoms or molecules.
Chemical formula
A representation of a compound that has the symbols and numbers of atoms in the compound.
Formula mass
Determined by adding up the atomic mass units of all the atoms in the compound; a way to compare the masses of molecules of different compounds.
Solvent
The component of a solution that dissolves the solute and is present in the greater amount.
Solute
The substance in a solution in the smallest amount; the solute is dissolved by the solvent
Solution
A mixture of 2 or more substances that's homogenous at the molecular level; a solution made of a solute and a solvent.
Tyndall Effect
A way of visually distinguishing colloids from true solutions.
Colloid
A type of mixture in which the particles(atoms/molecules) are between 1.0 and 1000 nanometers in diameter.
Nanometer
A unit of measurement that's equal to one billionth of a meter.
Alloy
A solution of 2 or more metals.
Equilibrium
In physics, happens when the forces on an object are balanced. In chemistry, the state in which the solute in a solution is dissolving and coming out of solution at the same rate.
Suspension
A type of mixture in which the particles(atoms/molecules) are larger than 1000 nanometers in diameter.
Ionization
To convert or become entirely converted or partly into ions.
Saturated
The state of a mixture in which the maximum amount of solute has dissolved in a solution.
Supersaturated
A condition of a solution when more solute has dissolved than is normally possible at a given temperature.
Dissociation
Separating a molecule into atoms and ions.
Neutral
A solution that has a pH of 7, it has equal amounts of H+ and OH-, or acidic and basic ions; when one proton is paired with one electron.
Non - Electrolyte
A substance that doesn't ionize in water and is therefore a poor conductor of electricity. Chemicals don't form ions when dissolved into a solution.
Acid
A chemical that gives hydrogen ions, H+, to a solution.
Base
A chemical that gives hydroxyl ions, OH-, to a solution.
Acid precipitation
Rain,snow,or fog that has a pH lower than 5.6.
pH
The exact concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions in a solution.
Electrolytes
Chemicals that make ions and conduct current when dissolved in water.
Alpha particle
A partially charged particle emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay; also called a helium nucles.
Half - life
The length of time it takes for half an amount of radioactive substance to undergo radioactive decay.
Gamma rays
A photon emitted spontaneously by a radioactive substance.
Isotopes
Forms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and different mass numbers.
Beta particles
A negatively charged particle(an electron) emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay.
Radiation
The process of emitting radiant energy. The particles and energy that are emitted from radioactive substances.
Fission
A nuclear reaction that involves the splitting of the nucleus of an atom.
Fusion
A nuclear reaction that involves fusing nuclei from 2 atoms to make a different atom.
Solubility
The amount of solute that can be dissolved in a certain volume of solvent under certain conditions.
Solubility Value
A number that describes a solute - solvent system; it has the mass of solute, amount of solvent and temperature.
Alpha decay
Radioactive decay that results in an alpha particle( a helium nucleus) being emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive element.
Beta decay
Radioactive decay that results in a beta particle(an electron) being emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive element.
Gamma decay
Radioactive decay that results in a gamma particle(an electron)being emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive element.
Nuclear reaction
A reaction that involves splitting the nucleus of an atom or fusing 2 nuclei.
Strong nuclear force
The force that holds protons together when they are very close together.
Stable
An atom that has a balance of charge or a non-radioactive nucleus.
Radioactive isotopes
An unstable isotope of an element that spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay.