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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sequence of bases in DNA strand
A to T
C to G
Male Chromosome
X and Y
Female Chromosome
X and X
Hardy-Weinberg Formula
p² + 2pq + q² = 1
Mitosis
Cell Division
means of passing DNA from cell to cell
Meiosis
Cell division for sexual reproduction
Chi-square test
used to determine whether to reject or accept the null hypothesis in an experiment
Null Hypothesis
hypothesis of no relationship between the variables
Natural Selection
the process of adaptation of species in the enviroment they live in. The most "fittest" survive
Macroevolution
species adapt and changes over a long period of time
Microevolution
adaptation not including species change and over a small period of time
Scientific Method
Paradigm, Subject, Problem, Hypothesis, Operationalization, Testing, Theory
Paradigm
(1st on the Scientific Method)
the paradigm of physical anthropology is the study of bones in a human being
Subject
(2nd on the Scientific Method)
a smaller aspect of paradigm
ie: shapes of feet
Problem
(3rd on the Scientific Method)
a problem for physical anthro is the nature of why we are structured with 5 toes.
Hypothesis
(Test Criteria)
(4th on the Scientific Method)
a tentative explaination of an observed phenomenon. A prediction or educated guess
Operationalization
(5th on Scientific Method)
putting together research design and stating what you will be studying, how you will study it, what things do you need, ect
Testing
(6th on the Scientific Method)
finding the sample and studying it, collecting data and analyzing to come up with the results
Theory
(7th on the scientific method)
a hypothesis that has been shown to probably be true "a system of validated hypothesis"
Allele
alternative forms of a gene
Autosomes
Chromosomes that carry DNA for all characteristics except for the sex of the individual
Chromatid
One of two identical copies of DNA comprimising a replicated chromosome
Codominant Alleles
Alleles that are both expressed when paired in an organism
Dominant Alleles
An allele that is phenotypically expressed in the heterozygote and that prevents the expression of the recessive allele
Gene
That section of DNA that defines the specific code for a series of amino acids making up a protien or a part of a protien
Gene Pool
The total complement of genes in a population
Genome
A complete set of chromsomes (and genes)
Genotype
All of the genetic information contained in an organisim; the enetic constitution (gene makeup) of an organism
Heterozygote
An organism with unlike members of any given pair or series of alleles at a particular locus
Homologous Chromosomes
Carry genetic information for the same trait at he same location
Homozygote
An organism whose chromosomes carry identical members of a given pair of alleles.
Phenotype
Characteristics of an individual visually observed or discernable by other means
Recessive Allele
An allele that is not expressed when paired with a dominant allele
Evolution
a change in gene or allele frequencies from one generation to the next
Biological Classification
Karl Von Linné assigned each organism in a genus and species
Clade
a group of organisms related through a common ancestor
Primate Classification
5 digits on hands and feet, sensitive tactile pads, nails instead of claws on at least 1 digit, opposible thumbs, increased complexity of the brain, omnivorous diet
Quadruped
center of gravity roughly over the forelimbs
Biped
center of gravity is closer to the hind legs
Brachiators
center of gravity is low in their body
Prognathism on a Quadruped
Extensive prognathism
Very long tooth row
Very long snout
Prognathism on a Biped
Short tooth row
Nasal and tooth row more directly under forehead
Reduced Prognathis
Prognathism on a Brachiator
More similar to biped (reduced) than quadruped
Foraman Magnum on Quadruped
Near rear of cranium
Foraman Magnum on Biped
More centrally located under cranium
Foramen Magnum on Braciator
Intermediate
Nuchal Crest on Quadruped
Very large, rough area indicating origin of substantial nuchal muscles
Nuchal Crest on Biped
No nuchal crest
Nuchal Crest on Brachiator
Similar to Biped (none)
Mastoid Process on Quadruped
Very small
Mastroid Process on Biped
Fairly large
Mastroid Process on Brachiator
Not pronounced
Illium on Quadruped
Long and narrow
Greater sciatic notch, very wide
forms an obtuse angle
Illium on Biped
Short and Splayed
Greater scieatic notch is more accurate
Illium on Brachiator
Intermediate