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57 Cards in this Set

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What are the three subphyla within the Arthopoda?
Subphylum Trilobita
Subphylum Chelicerata
Subphylum Mandibulata
What are the three classes of Chelicerates?
Class Merostomata
Class Pycnogonida
Class Arachnida
What are the three classes in Mandibulata?
Class Myriapoda
Class Crustacea
Class Hexapoda
What are the four subclasses within Hexapoda?
Subclass & Order Protura
Subclass & Order Collembola
Subclass & Order Diplura
Subclass Insecta
What two groups are within the apterygota?
Order Thysanura
Order Archeognatha
Characteristics of Trilobita
Extinct, antennae present, uniramous appendages which are undifferentiated
Critters in Chelicerata (common names)?
Scorpions, spiders, "sea spiders,"
Characteristics of Chelicerata
1st pair of appendages are chelicerae, 2nd pair are pedipalps, no antennae, prosoma (no head-thorax division)
Characteristics of Merostomata
Relic (4 spp), book gills, telson (tail spike)
Orders within Merostomata?
Order Eurypterida
Order Xiphosura
Critters in Eurypterida
Extinct giant sea scorpions
Critters in Xiphosura
Horseshoe Crabs
MAJOR apomorphy of Xiphosura compared to other Chelicerates???
Compound Eyes
Appendages of Chelicerates
12 Total
- 1 pair chelicerae
- 1 pair pedipalps
- 4 pairs legs
Critters in Class Pycnogonida (common names)?
Sea spiders
Entirely marine
Critters in Class Arachnida(common names)?
Scorpions, daddy long legs, mites/ticks, spiders, pseudoscorpions, tailed & tailless whip scorpions, etc
Apomorphy of Class Arachnida?
Single median genital opening, 0-4 pairs of simple eyes
What three characteristics of the Arthropoda have made them so successful?
Exoskeleton - invasion of land and flight

Metamerism - allow limb specialization

Short life span/high fecundity - higher rates of evolution
Describe the mouthparts of the Trilobita, Chelicerata, and Mandibulata
Trilobita - gnathobases

Chelicerata - chelicerae (on seg. 3) & gnathobases

Mandibulata - mandibles (on seg. 4) & gnathobases
Why are the mouthparts of the Chelicerates and the Mandibulates NOT homologous?
They're on different segments
Where are they...
What are gnathobases?
Spines on coxal bases which chew food & direct it toward mouthparts
Arachnid excretion is via..
Coxal glands or malpighian tubes (excreting crystals of uric acid or guanine)
It's NOT homologous with other terrestrial arthropods
Order Aranae
True Spiders
Modified Chelicerae into fangs...
Order Acari
Mites & Ticks
Apomorphy: prosoma & opisthosoma fused
Order Solfugae (Solipugida)
Wind Scorpions & Sun Spiders
HUGE forward pointing chelicerae
Order Uropygi
Whip Scorpions
GIANT pedipalps
Order Amblypygi
Tailless Whip Scorpions
No tail.. Harry Potter movie
Order Opiliones
Daddy long legs ("Harvestmen" if you're British)
There's a myth that they have the most dangerous venom in the world, but don't have big enough mouth parts to bite...
Order Pseudoscorpiones
If you got this wrong, you need help.

Pseudoscorpions
REALLY small
Order Scorpiones
Scorpions, duh.
You seriously needed a hint?
Apomorphy of Subphlyum Mandibulata?
Mandibles
How many ganglia in Chelicerates and why..?
Only 2 - they lack the part of the brain that controls the antennae because they have no antennae
Fewer than other arthropods..
Class Myriapoda
Centipedes, Millipedes, Pauropods, Symphylans (garden centipedes)
Name means "many feet"
Characteristics of Myriapoda
no compound eyes, uniramous limbs, 1 pair antennae, trachea, malpighian tubules, often "anamorphic"

direct development, unwaxed cuticle, unclosable spiracles
Meaning of "anamorphic"
Add body segments during development
Clades of Myriapoda
Chilopoda - centipedes

Diplopoda - Millipedes

Pauropoda - Pauropedes

Symphyla - Symphylans
There are 4 of them...
Characteristics of Pauropoda
eyeless, 3-branched antennae, soil-dwelling, ~1mm long
Characteristics of Symphyla
eyeless, look like centipedes but NO poison, live in gardens
Characteristics of Chilopoda
1 pair of legs per body segment, duh.

posterior genital opening, predators, poison fangs, 7-segmented leg
Scolopendromorpha
Huge freaking centipede
Bat killer!
Characteristics of Diplopoda
2 pairs of legs per body segment, duh.

no poison, genital opening anterior, have a Ca2+ hardened cuticle
Diplopoda
Millipedes
Chilopoda
Centipedes
Critters in Class Crustacea
Crustaceans.. but what we care about are the pillbugs (rollie pollies), woodlice, sideswimmers / scuds
Apomorphy of Crustacea
2 pair of antennae (2nd lost in terrestrial lineages)
Why is there greater morphological diversity (yet fewer species) in the Crustaceans compared to insects?
Lack of study

Aquatic - body form less constrained by gravity/air= greater diversity

Ecological niches - most of ocean volument is not as complex ecologically compared to terrestrial niches

Time - Crustaceans had 150 mil year head start on insects, more time for higher level groups (but this argues against the lack of spp.)
Characteristics of Crustacea
3 tagma
- carapace (head + thorax)
- abdomen

biramous limbs
Definition of "biramous limb"
Branched limbs
Three subclasses under Crustacea
Subclass Branchiopoda
Subclass Maxillopoda
Subclass Malacostraca
One subclass had 75% of the species
Critters in Subclass Branchiopoda (common names)
Zooplankton, tadpole shrimp
Critters in Subclass Maxillopoda
Barnacles
Latch onto whales and ships
Largest Crustacean Subclass
Malacostraca
Three orders under Subclass Malocostraca
Order Decapoda - lobsters, crab, shrimp

Order Isopoda - rollie pollies, pillbugs

Order Amphipoda - sideswimmers
One of the orders has a cameo as lunch in "The Emperor's New Groove"
Critters in Order Decapoda (common names)
Lobsters, crap, shrimp
Largest living arthropods.. and my lunch
Critters in Order Isopoda (common names)
Rollie pollies, pillbugs
Cameo as lunch in "The Emperor's New Groove"
Critters in Order Amphipoda (common names)
Sideswimmers, scuds
Laterally flattened
Definition of "conglobation"
To roll into a ball
Not as bad as it sounds..