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### 41 Cards in this Set

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 define REACTION RATE determines the speed of a chemical reaction define ENERGY OF ACTIVATION E sub(a) - energy required for the inital bond breaking define EXOTHERMIC REACTION net release of energy (hot) define ENDOTHERMIC REACTION net absorption (cold) define BOND ENERGY either absorbed as a bond breaks, or released as a bond forms - energy formula: energy of a reaction Esub(rxn [kJ/mol]) = Esub(formation/products [molxE kJ]) - Esub(breaking/reactants [molxE kJ + molxE kJ]) formula: molar mass m [g] = n [mol] x M [g/mol] formula: concentration percent weight (volume concentration) concentration [%] = (volume or mass of solute) / (volume or mass of solution) x (100% solution) = % solute formula: concentration Molarity (mass) C concentration of solution [g/L] = m [g] / V [L] formula: concentration Molarity (mol) C concentration of solution [mol/L or M] = n [mol] / V [L] formula: # of neutrons in a nucleus # of neutrons = mass number - atomic number = (# protons + # neutrons) - (# protons) rule: atoms are neutral, therefore.. #protons = #electrons rule: properties of elements size decreases from left to right and from bottom to top rule: electronegativity en increases from left to right and from bottom to top (F en = 4) define: metals most of the elements in the table shiny, opaque, good electrical & heat conductors, can change form, can bend without breaking define: nonmetals poor conductors, nonmalleable, nonductile define: metalloids semi-conductors, weak electrical conductors groups/categories: halogens/halides F, Cl, Br, I group 17 groups/categories: noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe groups/categories: transition metals groups 3 to 12 groups/categories: alkali metals group 1 groups/categories: non-alkali metals group 2 formula: quantum concept E [J] = h [Js] x f [Hz or 1/s] define: Planck's constant h = 6.63 x 10^-34 Js define: electron volt eV = 1.6 x 10^-19 J formula: energy of excited states/orbits Esub(n) = Esub(1) / n^2 Esub(1) depends on the atom - will be energy level of orbit #1 Esub(n) depends on the level/orbit/shell define: quantum numbers 1. n - main energy level 2. energy sublevel - s,p,d,f 3. orientation s - 1 orientation p - 3 orientations d - 5 orientations f - 7 orientations 4. direction of spin rule: naming compounds 1. name of element further to the left is followed by the name of the element further to the right, with the suffix "-ide" added to the name of the latter 2. when 2 or more compounds have different numbers of the same elements, prefixes are added to remove the ambiguity rule: valence electrons must be.. ..in s & p orbitals rule: determining the type of ion an atom needs to form 1+ 2+ 3+ 4- 3- 2- 1- 0 define: ionic bonds electron transfer define: covalent bonds electron sharing rule/definition: electronegativity & types of bonds EN = type of bond 0-.5 = covalent .5-1.8 = polar covalent 1.8 < = ionic define: particles in nuclear equations particle (mass,charge)symbol proton 1,1H or 1,1p electron 0,-1e or 1,1B neutron 1,0n gamma photon 0,0y rule: distance at or below nuclear force is significant 10^-15m acids -accept? -donate? -donate bases -accept? -donate? -accept formula: pH constant K = [Hsub(3)O^+] x [OH^-] = 1 x 10^-14 M rule: acidic solution H3O+ > OH- rule: basic solution H3O+ < OH- formula: pH pH = -log[H3O+] 10^[H3O+]