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41 Cards in this Set

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define
REACTION RATE
determines the speed of a chemical reaction
define
ENERGY OF ACTIVATION
E sub(a) - energy required for the inital bond breaking
define
EXOTHERMIC REACTION
net release of energy (hot)
define
ENDOTHERMIC REACTION
net absorption (cold)
define
BOND ENERGY
either absorbed as a bond breaks, or released as a bond forms - energy
formula:
energy of a reaction
Esub(rxn [kJ/mol]) = Esub(formation/products [molxE kJ]) - Esub(breaking/reactants [molxE kJ + molxE kJ])
formula:
molar mass
m [g] = n [mol] x M [g/mol]
formula:
concentration
percent weight (volume concentration)
concentration [%] = (volume or mass of solute) / (volume or mass of solution) x (100% solution) = % solute
formula:
concentration
Molarity (mass)
C concentration of solution [g/L] = m [g] / V [L]
formula:
concentration
Molarity (mol)
C concentration of solution [mol/L or M] = n [mol] / V [L]
formula:
# of neutrons in a nucleus
# of neutrons = mass number - atomic number = (# protons + # neutrons) - (# protons)
rule:
atoms are neutral, therefore..
#protons = #electrons
rule:
properties of elements
size decreases from left to right and from bottom to top
rule:
electronegativity
en increases from left to right and from bottom to top
(F en = 4)
define:
metals
most of the elements in the table
shiny, opaque, good electrical & heat conductors, can change form, can bend without breaking
define:
nonmetals
poor conductors, nonmalleable, nonductile
define:
metalloids
semi-conductors, weak electrical conductors
groups/categories:
halogens/halides
F, Cl, Br, I
group 17
groups/categories:
noble gases
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe
groups/categories:
transition metals
groups 3 to 12
groups/categories:
alkali metals
group 1
groups/categories:
non-alkali metals
group 2
formula:
quantum concept
E [J] = h [Js] x f [Hz or 1/s]
define:
Planck's constant
h = 6.63 x 10^-34 Js
define:
electron volt
eV = 1.6 x 10^-19 J
formula:
energy of excited states/orbits
Esub(n) = Esub(1) / n^2
Esub(1) depends on the atom - will be energy level of orbit #1
Esub(n) depends on the level/orbit/shell
define:
quantum numbers
1. n - main energy level
2. energy sublevel - s,p,d,f
3. orientation
s - 1 orientation
p - 3 orientations
d - 5 orientations
f - 7 orientations
4. direction of spin
rule:
naming compounds
1. name of element further to the left is followed by the name of the element further to the right, with the suffix "-ide" added to the name of the latter
2. when 2 or more compounds have different numbers of the same elements, prefixes are added to remove the ambiguity
rule:
valence electrons must be..
..in s & p orbitals
rule:
determining the type of ion an atom needs to form
1+ 2+ 3+ 4- 3- 2- 1- 0
define:
ionic bonds
electron transfer
define:
covalent bonds
electron sharing
rule/definition:
electronegativity & types of bonds
EN = type of bond
0-.5 = covalent
.5-1.8 = polar covalent
1.8 < = ionic
define:
particles in nuclear equations
particle (mass,charge)symbol
proton 1,1H or 1,1p
electron 0,-1e or 1,1B
neutron 1,0n
gamma photon 0,0y
rule:
distance at or below nuclear force is significant
10^-15m
acids
-accept?
-donate?
-donate
bases
-accept?
-donate?
-accept
formula:
pH constant
K = [Hsub(3)O^+] x [OH^-] = 1 x 10^-14 M
rule:
acidic solution
H3O+ > OH-
rule:
basic solution
H3O+ < OH-
formula:
pH
pH = -log[H3O+]
10^[H3O+]