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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the definition of photosynthesis?
plants convert solar energy into energy stored in chemical bonds (chemical energy)
What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 12H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
What are the two main processes of photosynthesis?
Light and Dark Reactions
Are light reactions light independent or light dependent reactions?
Are dark reactions light independent or light dependent reactions?
What is the function of a light reaction?
it uses light energy directly to produce ATP
What is the function of a dark reaction?
it usually produces sugars
How are dark reactions powered?
by ATP from Light Reactions
Can dark reactions occur in DARK or LIGHT areas?
Are authotrophs producers or consumers?
What are two types of authotrophs found in photosynthesis?
Photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs
How do autrotrophs obtain organic food?
WITHOUT eating other organisms
Are heterotrophs producers or consumers?
How do heterotrops obtain organic food?
BY EATING other organisms or their by-products
Decomposers count as heterotrophs!
What is the function of pigments?
to absorb certain wavelengths (colors) and reflect all others
What color are Chlorophyll a and b pigments?
Chlorophyll a and b absorb what kind of wavelengths?
wavelengths in the red, blue, and violet wavelengths
Chlorophyll a and b absord high or low energy wavelenths?
What color are carotenoid and Xanthiphyll pigments?
Carotenoids and Xanthophyll pigments absord what kind of wavelengths?
blue, green, and violet wavelengths
Phycobillin wavelengths are what color?
What is the function of antenna pigments?
to capture wavelengths of light not absorbed by chlorophyll a
What do antenna pigments expand?
the spectrum of light that can be used to drive photosynthesis
What are examples of antenna pigments?
Chlorophyll b and carotenoids
Antenna pigments absorb light energy, AND..
pass it to chlorophyll a
therefore, antenna pigments are directly involved in transforming what into what?
light E into sugar
Describe the structure of cholorplasts.
Outer, double membrane
What is the site of dark reactions?
What is the site of light reactions?
The Grana consists of what? (it increases surface area for reactions)
stacks of thlyakoid membranes
What are photosystems?
light harvesting complexes
where exactly are the photosystems located?
in the Grana, in the tylakoid membranes
how many photosystems are there?
several hundred per chloroplast
What do photosystems consist of?
a reaction center containing chloropyhyl a, AND antenna pigments
What are the two types of photosystems?
Photosystem 1 and Photosystem 2
What is PS1 aka?
PS1 absorbs light in what nm range?
What is PS2 aka?
PS2 absorbs light in what nm range?
What photosystem comes first?
PS2, then PS1
In light dependent (LR) reactions, how is light absorbed?
by PS1 and PS2
How is ATP Produced in light dependent reactions?
Exergonic flow of e- through ETC is couples with phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
What is photolysis?
when water is split
Photolysis provides what?
Electrons for PS2 AND protons to reduce NADP to NADPH
NADP carries what to Dark Reactions?
What is non-cyclic photophosphorylation?
the main process occuring during light reactions
Where does non-cyclic photophosphorylation begin and end?
Begins at PS2, ends at PS1
What happens during non-cyclic photophosphorylation?
Electrons from photolysis enter 2 ETCs; ATP and NADPH are formed
During non-cyclic photophosphorylation, what powers ATP production, and how?
Chemiosmosis, ATP Synthase
During non-cyclic photophosphorylation, the NADP reduced to NADPH after H+ does what?
Diffuses through ATP Synthase channel across the thylakoid membrane
Cyclic photophosphorylation is --- of non-cyclic.
What is the function of cyclic photophosphorylation?
replenishes ATP levels only -- no NADPH is formed
When does clyclic photophosphorylation occur?
when the Calvin Cycle uses up available ATP
Does the Calvin Cycle require little or lots of energy?
During cyclic photophosphorylation electrons travel from where to where?
from PS2 to PS1, then back again to PS2 (cyclic)
Where do light independent reactions occur?
in the stroma
do dark reactions depend directly on light?
What do light independent reactions require?
Products of light reactions
What major process do light independent reactions consist of?
What does the Calvin cycle produce?
PGAL or G3P (same thing)
What is the LONG name for PGAL and G3P?
what is the primary job of the Calvin cycle?
Carbon Fixation
The Calvin Cycle produces PGAL, which is what?
a 3-carbon sugar
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
In the stroma
During the Calvin Cycle, CO2 combines with what? and what does it produce?
combines with RuBP (a 5-carbon molecule) -- produces 2, 3-carbon molecules
What are an example of 3-carbon molecules?
C-3 Plants
The calvin cycle is catalyzed by what enzyme?
Rubisco (RuBP carboxlase)
What is photrespiration?
a dead end process
What does photorespiration do?
diverts energy from photosynthesis
Does photorespiration produce ATP?
Does photorespiration produce sugar?
How does photorespiration occur?
When rubisco binds with O2 instead of CO2
Does rubsico have a greater affinity for CO2 or O2?
What type of plants have adaptation for dry environments?
C-4 Plants
C-4 plants are a biochemical and anatomical modification of what?
C-3 photosynthesis
C-4 plants involve what?
Krantz anatomy and Hatch Slack Pathway
Krants Anatomy refers to what?
the structure of a C-4 leaf
Krantz Anatomy minimizes what?
the time stomates are open
The Hatch-Slack Pathway precedes what?
the Calvin Cycle
What is the function of the Hatch-Slack Pathway?
it pumps C02 into bundle sheath cells, deep within the leaf
During the Hatch-Slack Pathway, what binds with C02 to produce MALATE?
PEP carboxylase
What is the function of the MALATE pumped into the bundle sheath cells?
it maintains a steep C02 gradient neat stomates --reduces time stomates need to be opened
what does CAM refer to?
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
CAM plants are a modification for what?
dry (xerophytic) environments
When do stomates open and close in CAM PLANTS?
open at night, close during day
In CAM PLANTS, what stores C02 inorganic molecules synthesized at night?
What supplies ATP so the Calvin Cycle can run during the Day in CAM PLANTS?
Light Reactions
In CAM PLANTS, C02 is released from organic compounds and synthesized into what?