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249 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
accepted standard of care
the consensus of medical opinion on what is adequate patient care in a perticular situation
accession number
unique identifying number used for cataloging a sample in the lab
accreditation
official approval of a program from a professional organization
arobic bacteria
bacteria that need oxygen
aerosol
mist of droplets
agglutination
sticking together
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
airborne precautions
precautions that are used with patients known or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei
airbone transmission
spread of infection either by airborne droplet nuclei or dust particles taht contain microorganisms
aliquot
portion of sample
allergic contact dermatitis
allergic reaction following skin contact with an allergen
allergy
inappropriately severe immune reaction to an otherwise harmless substance
amniocentesis
collection of amniotic fluid or detection of inherited diseases and other abnormalities
anaerobic bacteria
bacteria that live without oxygen
analyte
substance being analzyed
anaphylaxis
severe immune reaction in which the airways may swell and blood pressure may fall
anatomic/surgical pathology area
one of the two main branches of the clinical laboratory, responsible for analyzing cells and tissues
ancillary blood glucose test
bedside test to determine blood glucose level, performed by dermal puncture
anticoagulants
additives that prevent blood clotting
arterial blood gases(ABG)
tests to determine the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood and the pH of the blood
arterial line
a vascular access device that is placed in an artery
arteriospasm
rapid contraction of the arterial wall
arteriovenous (AV) shunt
an artificial connection between an artery and a vein
autoimmunity
a condition in which the immune system attacks the body's won tissues
autologous donation
donation of a patient's own blood for use at a later time
B cell
antibody-producing cell
bacteriostatic
an agent tnat prevents growth of bacteria
biotinidase deficiency
inherited metabolic disorder
bleeding time (BT) test
a test that measures the length of time required for bleeding to stop after an incision is made
blood bank
the department that deals with blood for transfusions; also called immunohematology department
blood type
the presence and type of antigens on the surface of red blood cells
blood-borne pathogens
infectious agents carried in the blood
brachial artery
large artery in the antecubital fossa
Broviac
a type of central venous catheter
bulbourethral gland
gland supplying fluid for semen
BURPP
bilirubin, uric acid, phosphorus, and potassium
butterfly
winged infusion set
calcaneus
heel bone
capillary tube (microhematocrit tube)
small plastic tubes unsed primarily for hematocrit tests
cardiac cycle
set of events in one complete heartbeat
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
emergency manual means to maintain breathing and circulation
catheterized urine sample
urine sample collected via a catheter inserted inot the bladder
CD4+ cells
helper T cells
cellular immunity
T-cell mediated immunity
central venous catheter
most common vascular access device, inserted into one of the large veins emptying into the heart
central venous line
central venous catheter
centrifuge
separating components of a sample based on density by using machine that spins a sample at a very high speed
certification
verification that an individual has demonstrated proficiency in a particular area of practice.
cervix
narrow opening between vagina and uterus
chain of custody (COC)
protocol that ensures the sample is always in the custody of a person legally entrusted to be in control of it
chain of infection
a continuous link between the infection source, the means of transmission, and the susceptible host
chemical hygiene plan
plan that describes all safety procedures, special precautions, and emergency procedures used when working with chemicals
chemistry panel
a goup of chemistry tests
clinical pathology area
one of the two main branches of the clinical laboratory, responsible for analyzing blood and other body fluids
Clinical Lab Improvement Act of 1988
federal law that mandated regulation of all facilities that performed patient testing
clinical laboratory
the hospital branch that analyzes samples from a patient atthe request of the physician or other health care personnel
clot activators
additives taht stimulate clotting
coagulation
clotting
cold agglutinins
antibodies often formed in response to infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae
collateral circulation
accessory supply of blood to a region by more than one artery
College of American Pathologists (CAP)
accrediting agency; accreditation by CAP is required for Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement
combinng form
combination of the word root and the combining vowel
combining vowel
a vowel added to a word root to make pronunciation easier
common vehicle transmission
transmission by means of contaminated items such as food, water, medications, devices, and equipemtn
complete blood count
an automated test used to test for conditions that affect the number and ratio of cell types in the blood
conduction system
system of conductive cells in the ehart that trigger contraction
contact precautions
precautions used for patients known or suspected to have serious illnesses that are easily transmitted by direct patient contact or by contact with items in the patient's environment
contact transmission
transfer of microorganisms from an infected or colonized person to a susceptible host by body surface-to-body surface contact or through contact with a contaminated object
continuing education units
creditsf or participation in a continuing education program
contiunous quality improvement
major goal of total quality management
cryoglobulin
abnormal type of fibrinogen that precipitates when cold
cryoglobulin
abnormal serum protein that precipitates when cold
culture and sensitivity
tests to detect and identify microorganisms and to determine the most effective antibiotic therapy
cytokines
chemical messengers that include interferons and interleukins
cytotoxic T cells
lymphocytes that recongnize antigens and directly destroy both foreign cells and infected host cells
damages
monetary compensation
delta check
quality assurance procedure that helps identify identification errors by comparing previous patient results with current results
depolarization
contraction of the heart
dereliction
a breach of the duty of care
differential
a test to assess the ratio of the different types of white blood cells and platelets
differnetial count
determination of the proportions of the various blood cell type
diluent
liquid of dilution
disinfectant
an agent used to clean a surface other than living tissue
dorsalis pedis artery
artery in the foot
DOT label
Department of Transportation label, indicating the type of hazard, the United Nations hazard class number, and a specific identifying
droplet nuclei
particles smaller than 5 micrometers that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time
droplet precautions
precautions used for patients known or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by large particle droplets
droplet transmission
spread of infection through airborne droplets
8-hour specimen
used for morning specimen
emesis
nausea and vomiting
essentials
established standards and competencies used in an accredited program
epididymis
established standards and competencies used in an accredited program
estrogens
hormones controlling the female reproductive cycle
external arteriovenous (AV) shunt
AV shunt consisting of a cannula with a rubber septum, through which a needle may be inserted for drawing blood
fallopian tube
tube through which an egg reaches the uterus
feathered edge
a blood smear characteristic in which cells farther from the original drop appear to thin out
femoral artery
artery in the groin area above the thigh
first morning specimen
urine sample collected immediately after a patient wakens; also called 8-hour specimen
fistula
permanent internal connection between an artery and a vein
"flea"
metal filing used to mix blood with additives in small tubes
floor book
book that contains a variety of information pertinent to the smooth coordination of nursing staff and lab personnel, including laboratory schedules, sweep times, and written notification of any watch changes, plus information on patient preparation, specimen types and handling, and normal values
flow cytometry
analytical technique used to identify cellular markers on the surface of white blood cells
formite
contaminated object
gauge
a number describing the diameter of a needle's lumen
gonads
testes and overies
Groshong
a type of central venous catheter
health maintance organization
health care delivery system taht functions as full-service outpatient clinics, providing all or almost all medical specialties under one roof
helper T cells
regulators of the immune response
hematocrit
test to determine the percnetage of the blood volume that is red blood cells
hematoma
a reddened, swollen area where blood collects under the skin
hemochromatosis
excess of iron in the blood
hemoconcentration
an increase in the ratio of formed elements to plasma, usually caused by leaving the tourniquet on to long
hemolysis
destruction of red blood cells
hemostatis
the process by which the body stops blood from leaking out of a wound
heparin or saline lock
a tube temporarily placed in a peripheral vein; used to administer medicine and draw blood.
Hickman
a type of central venous catheter
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation of a fertilized egg
humoral immunity
antibody-based immunity
hyperventilation
rapid shallow breathing
immunization
deliberate provocation of an immune response to stimulate immune memory
hyperventilation
rapid shallow breathing
immunohematology
blood donated to blood bank
implanted port
a chamber located under the skin and connected toan indwelling line
incident report
prompt and complete documnetation of the circumstances of an incident
infection
an invasion by and growth of a microorganism in the human body that causes disease
informed consent
consent to a procedure with full understanding of the risks and the right to refuse to undergo the procedure
interferon
a type of cytokine
interleukin
a type of cytokine
internal ateriovenous (AV) shunt
AV shunt consisting of a fistula that uses either the patient's tissue, a piece of bovine tissue, or a synthetic tube
iontophorectic pilocarpine test
detection of salt levels in sweat by application of a weak electric current
iontophoresis
induction of sweat by application of a weak electric current
irritant contact dermatitis
direct irritaiton of the skin by contact with a chemical irritant
isolation
to separate an infection source from suscoptible hosts, thereby breaking the chain of infection
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Organizations
organization that sets standards regarding systems to monitor and evaluate the quality of patient care
latex sensitivity
response to latex proteins in gloves and other medical equipment; usually leads to contact dermatitis
leads
ECG electrodes
liability insurance
insurance that covers monetary damages that must be paid if the defendant loses a liability suit
liable
to be legally responsible for an action of inaction
licensure
a documneted permit sisued by a goverment agency, either municipal or state, that grants the bearer permission to perform a particular service or procedure
luer adapter
a device for adapting a butterfly needle to an evacuated tube
lumen
the hollow tube within a needle
hymphostasis
lack of movement of lymph fluid
major histocompatiblity complex
set of surface proteins detected by the immune system that are used to distinguish self tissue from nonself
malpractice
delivery of substandard care that results in harm to a patient
maple syrup disease
inherited metabolic disorder
material safety data sheet
sheet that provides information on the chemical, its hazards, and procedures for cleanup and first aid
memory cells
B cells specialized to respond quickly upon the second encounter with an antigen
memory T cells
T cells that are primed to respond rapidly if an antigen is encountered again later in life
microcollection tube
small tube used to collect dermal puncture samples; "bullet"
micropipet (Caraway pipet or Natelson pipet)
large glass capillary tube
midstream clean catch
most common procedure for collecting any tyupe of urine specimen
modified Allen test
test for collateral circulation
molecular diagnostics
department that analyzes DNA within a variety of tissues
multisample needle
a double-ended needle designed to be used with an evacuated tube system
nasopharyngeal culture
used to diagnose whooping cough, croup, pneumonia, and other upper respiratory tract infections
Natioal Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards
nonprofit organization that sets standards and guidelines under the Clinical Lab Improvement Act of 1988
needle adapter
translucent plastic cylinder connecting a multisample needle to an evacuated tube
negligence
failure to perform an action consistent with the accepted standard of care
NFPA Label
National Fire Protection Agency label taht serves to warn fire fighters of the location of hazardous materials in the event of a fire.
noscomial infections
infections contracted by a patient during a hospital stay
occluded
blocked
occult blood specimen
fecal specimen for detection of blood in stool
order of draw
the prescribed sequence in which tubes with different additives should be filled during a multi-tube collection
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration; responsible for regulations governing workplace safety
osteochondritis
painful inflamation of the bone or cartilage
osteomyelitis
bone infection
out-of-court settlement
a settlement in which the two parties reach an agreement without the intervention of a judge or jury.
ovaries
site of egg production
ovulation
release of an egg
P wave
part of the normal ECG tracting
palpation
probing or feeling
partial pressure of carbon
amount of oxygen dissolved in the blood
pathogens
infectious organisms
penis
the male copulation organ
peripherally inserted central catheter
a vascular access device threaded into a central vein after insertion into a peripheral (noncentral) vein.
personal protective equipment
fluid-resistant gowns, masks, respirators, face shields, shoe covers, and gloves
petechiae
small red spots appearing on the skin that are caused by a tourniquet that is too tight.
phlebotomy
the practice of drawing blood
physician office lab
physicians in a group practice may employ a phlebotomist to collect patient samples
plaintiff
person claiming to have been harmed by the defendant
plasma cells
B cells specialized for producing antibody
pneumatic tube system
sample transport system in which samples are carrried in a sealed container within a network of tubes
poycythemia
excessive production of red blood cells
PR interval
part of the normal ECG tracing
preanalytical variables
variables that occur prior to performing the analysis of the specimen
preferred provider organization
a group of doctors and hospitals who offer their services to large employers to provide health care to employees
prefix
a word part preceding the root
procedure manual
book that contains protocols and other information about all the tests performed in the lab, including the principle behind the test, the purpose of performing it, the specimen type the test requires, the collection method, and the equipment and supplies required.
professional services
hospital branch that, at the request of the physician, provides services that aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient; in cludes the clinical laboratory
progesterone
hormone controlling the reproductive cycle
prostate
gland supplying fluid for semen
protective isolation
isolation of immunocompromised paitients to prevent exposing them to infection
QRS Complex
part of the normal ECG tracing
QT interval
part of the normal ECG tracing
quality assurance
set of methods used to guarantee quality patient care
quality control
quantitative methods used to monitor the quality of precedures
quality phlebotomy
a set of policies and procedures designed to ensure the delivery of consistently high-quality patient care and specimen analysis
raidal artery
artery supplying the hand
radioactive hazard symbol
symbol used to mark areas where radioactivity is used
random specimen
a specimen that may be collected at any time
rapid Group A Strep
test for the rapid detection of Group A Streptococcus bacteria
reference laboratory
an indepentdent laboratory that analyzes samples from other health care facilities
reflux
flow of blood from the collection tube back into the needle and then into the patient's vein.
repolarization
relaxation and recovery of the heart after contraction
requisition
form specifying which tests must be run or which samples to collect
reservoir
a person carrying an infectious agent without being sick
respiratory steady state
state required for ABG collection, in which blood gas concentrations are steady
reverse isolation
a protective isolation
root
the main part of a word
scalp artery
artery used for arterial blood collection in infants
sclerosed
hardened
scrotum
sac containing the testes
seminal vesicles
glands supplying fluid for semen
sepsis
bacterial infection
72-hour stool specimen
specimen used for quantitative fecal fat determination
severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)
inherited disorder marked by almost total lack of B and T cells
sharps
needles, lancets, broken glass, and other sharp items
sickle-cell anemia
inherited disorder of the hemoglobin molecule
ST segment
part of the normal ECG tracing
standard precautions
an infection control method that uses barrier protection and work control practices to prevent direct skin contact with blood, other body fluids, and tissues from all persons
STAT
a requisition requiring immediate attention and processing
stylus
recording pen of the ECG machine
suffix
a word part following the root
suprapubic aspiration
sample collected via a needle inserted through the abdominal wall into the bladder
sweat electrolytes
salt present in normal sweat; used as a part of the diagnosis for cystic fibrosis
syncope
fainting
T-wave
part of the normal ECG tracing
testosterone
principal make sec hormone
therapeutic phlebotomy
removal of blood from a patient's system as part of the teatment for a disorder
thixotropic gel
an inert additive used to separate cells from plasma during centrifugation
thrombosis
clot formation within a blood vessel
times specimens
a seriees of samples often collected over 24 hours and combined to provide a single, large specimen.
tort
an injury to one person for which another person who caused the injury is legally responsible
total quality management
entire set of approaches used by the institutions to provide customer satisfaction
transmission-based precautions
precaustions targeted at patients known or suspected to be infected with a highly transmissible pathogen
triple lumen
a central venous catheter
tube advancement mark
mark on a needle adapter indication how far the tube can be pushed in without losing vacuum
tube holder
an needle adapter
umbilical artery
artery used for arterial collection in infants
unintentional torts
unintentional injury; the basis for most medical malpractice claims
urethra
tube carrying urine from the bladder
urgent care center
an outpatient clinic that provides walk-in services to patients who cannot wait for a scheduled appointment with their primary health care provider
uterus
site of egg implantation and fetal development
vagina
passage in a female in which sperm and semen are deposited during intercourse
vas deferens
tube in a male through which sperm reach the urethra
vascular access device
a tube that is inserted into either a vein or artery; used to administer fluids or medications, to monitor blood pressure, or to draw blood.
vector transmission
infectious agents carried by organisms that are not harmed by their presence
venous thrombosis
formation of a blood clot within a vein
winged infusion set
small needle and flexible tube for delicate veins; "butterfly"