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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"philos"
love
"sophia"
wisdom
metaphysics:
-study of being

-what is reality?
epistemology:
-study of knowledge

-what is true knowledge? NOT beleifs.
ethics:
-right vs wrong

-what is right?
logic:
'logos'- thought, word, idea, explaination

-study of thinking (good thinking vs bad thinking)
political thoery:
-justice

-what is the best form to govern a society?
argument:
the basic building block of logic
conclusion:
the statement that other statements are trying to prove
premise:
the REASONS the argument gives to believe the conclusion

-argument an be OK with just one, but most good ones have two
propositional form:
-important part of standardizing an argument

-
proposition:
-statement that can be true or false

-NOT questions, interjections, imperatives or commands
valid:
-premises DEMANDS truth of the conclusion

-pemises do NOT have to be true
sound:
if an argument is valid AND the premises are true
A->B
EVERY TIME A is true, B is true
"Only if"
~B -> ~A
A -> B (positive valid)
B / A
A -> B (negative valid)
~B / ~A
The Milesans consisted of who?
Thales, teacher of
Anaximander, teacher of
Anaximenes
what do the Milesians agree on?
-cosmos began as a single stuff that changed and became the universe

-original material has w/i its own source of moition and change
what is the Milesians veiwpoint called?
-material monism
Who predicted an eclipse?
Thales.... also, boughth a crop of olives to become wealthy just to show others
what did Thales believe the "stuff" to be?
water

-and he said earth ress or floats on water
why did THales believe it to be water?
-saw the nourishment of all things moist

-seeds of all things have a moist nature
what did thatels believe about the soul?
that all things were full of gods

-belived it was something that produced motion, like a magnet
Anaximander:
-said to have been the first person to construct a map of the world
why didn't anaximander believe everything to be water?
-becausehe said it was too definate to be somethin else
What was "stuff" for anaximander?
-boundless and in motion

-gave rise to hot and cold

-was the first to call it indefinate
what did anamiander believe about the sun and animals?
-sun was the same size as the earth

-first animals were born from moisture in thorny barks

- believed humans to come from other animals
Anaximenes called the stuff:
aer: a dense mist
qualities of aer:
-finer: fire

-denser: wind, clouds, water, etc

-always moving
Pathagoras:
-settled in Croton

-founded a philosophical community

-starved to death in a temple after an uprising
Philisosphical Pythagoras:
-originator of important Pythegorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls

-sometime after his death his diciples split into two groups
(akousmatiki- religion and propoer way to live; mathematiki- philosophy and math)
What did Pathagoras believe?
-that number was the key to understand the cosmos

-limiters and unlimiteds (harmonia)

-it is knowable
What did Pathagoras believe about life after death?
-that souls turned into animal



-things that happen reccur at certain intervals

-nothing is new

-all things alive are kin

-don't eat fallen food cuz it fell on someones death

-black is evil; white is good
What did Pythagorus say about himself?
-he asked Hermes (dad) to retain memory of both alive and dead
akousmata:
-some indicated what something is

-some indicate what is greatest degree

-some indicate what must or must not be done
tetractys:
-first 4 numbers = 10

-source of ever flowing nature
harmonia:
fourth, fifth and octave

-five tones, two semitones
three tones, one semitone
two tones, one semitone

3:4 3:2 2:1
Heraclitus:
-logos

-argued that there is a single divine law of the universe

-link b/t divine logos and souls of ppl

-believed opposites to be a unity, so what is is also what is not
What did heraclitus argue against Pythagoras?
much learning does not teach understanding
what was Heraclitus veiw on mankind?
-said ppl are dumb and have a bad nature

-knowledge of most people is belief
parmindides
-student of xenophanes but 'did not follow him'

-no general agreement of his theory
what did Parmedines believe?
--genuine thought and knowledge canm only be about what is

-rejected the 'beliefs of mortals'

-what is must be whole, complete, unchanging and one
parmedines litteraure:
-goddess gave him cosmological account of the universe

-Doxa- decptive

-belive the changing world to be unreal?
Parmidenes said:
-destruction is unheard of

-it is not divided since it is all alike

-it is all full of what is

-and is continuous
Zeno:
-young lover of Parmedines

-resisted tyranny even though tortured
Zenos framework:
-explored Parms ideas

-shows that neither plurality or motion is compatable requirements for being: things would be both alike and unlike
How does Zeno demostrate his beliefs?
-midpoint argument and 'Achilles'

-paradox exists (to Heraclitus)

-time is composed of many 'nows,' and in the now motion is motionless
Zeno also said:
place is a place there fore it does not exist; therefore it is infinate

-bushell of seeds sould make the same noise as one
the Sophists:
-moral and social thinkers

-spured from the growth of democracy

-offered instruction on rhetorical skills
what did the sophists ponder?
-whether morality was a matter of nature or convention
who were the sophists?
protagoras

gorgias

antiphon

critias
protagoras:
-man is the measure of all things

-there are two sides to everything

-education is not implanted in the souls unless one reaches greater depths
Gorgias:
could argue any side of any argument

-argued logos was the reason Troy did/ did not happen

-on one side it is powerful and divine but on the other it is decieving and ruled by opinion
Some Gorgian Quotes:
destroy seriousness w/ laughter and vise versa

-those who study normal stuff are sleepin with the hasndmaids
Antiphon:
-wrote a book on how to win a case

-said time is relative

-said the mind is more powerful than the body
Antiphone likes to talk about :
natures laws vs man laws; says man laws go against nature
Critias:
-belived people to be good by practice, not nature

-humans established laws as punishers