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24 Cards in this Set

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drug
Any substance taken by mouth; injected into a muscle, blood vessel, or cavity of the body; or applied topically to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
pharmaceutics
The science of dispensing drugs.
chemical name
The exact designation of a chemical structure as determned by the rules of chemical nomenclature.
generic name
The official, established name assigned to a drug.
trade name
The trademark name of a drug, designated by the drug company that sells the medication.
official name
The name of a drug that is followed by the initials USP (United States Pharmacopeia) or NF (National Formulary), denoting its listing in one of the official publications; usually the same as the generic name.
agonist
Drugs that combine with receptors and initiate the expected response.
antagonist
Agents designed to inhibit or counteract the effects of other drugs or undesired effects caused by normal or hyperactive physiological mechanisms.
pharmacokinetics
The study of how the body handles a drug over a period of time, including the processes of absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion.
absorption
The process by which drug molecules are moved from the site of entry into the body into the general circulation.
distribution
The transport of a drug through the bloodstream to various tissues of the body and ultimately to its site of action.
biotransformation
The process by which a drug is converted chemically to a metabolite.
excretion
The elimination of toxic or inactive metabolites, primarily by the kidneys; the intestines, lungs, and mammary, sweat, and salivary glands also may be involved.
loading dose
A large quantity of drug that temporarily exceeds the capacity of the body to excrete that drug.
maintenance dose
The amount of a drug required to keep a desired steady state of drug concentration in tissues.
parenteral
Of or pertaining to any medication route other than the alimentary canal.
first-pass metabolism
The initial biotransformation of a drug during passage through the liver from the portal vein that occurs before the drug reaches the general circulation.
placental barrier
A protective biological membrane that separates the blood vessels of the mother and the fetus.
biological half-life
The time required to metabolize or eliminate half the total amount of drug in the body.
drug interaction
Modification of the effects of one drug by the previous or concurrent administration of another drug, thereby increasing or diminishing the pharmacological or physiological action of one or both drugs.
pharmacodynamics
The study of how a drug acts on a living organism.
drug receptors
Parts of a cell (usually an enzyme or large protein molecule) with which a drug molecule interacts to trigger its desired response or effect.
therapeutic index
A measurement of the relative safety of a drug.
contraindications
Medical or physiological factors that make it harmful to administer a medication that would otherwise have a therapeutic effect.