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10 Cards in this Set

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What are different methods of contraception?
• Abstinence
• Barrier methods
• Intrauterine devices
• Long-term Progestins
• Oral contraceptives
• Post-coital "morning-after" pill
Name and describe the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle
• Follicular phase: thickening of the endometrium lining (FSH stimulates the development of the follicle)
• Ovulatory phase: LH surge; Ovum released from follicle (lives 15-24 hrs)
• Luteal/Secretory phase: increases cervical viscosity to allow fertilization; if no fertilization, hormone levels decreases & endometrium sloughs off
Most oral contraceptive are combination pills of estrogen and progestins. What are the separate functions of estrogen & progestins?
• Estrogen: suppress release of FSH/LH, inhibit ovum implantation
• Progestins: thicken cervical mucus, inhibits sperm transport, alter FSH/LH peaks
What are adverse effects of estrogen?
• breast tenderness
• CVA
• fluid retention
• hypertension
• nausea
• thromboembolism
What are adverse effects of progestin?
• acne
• depression
• fatigue
• hirsutism
• hypertension
• increased appetitie
• weight gain
What is the pneumonic for "signs of trouble" for a patient taking oral contraceptives?
Pneumonic: ACHES
• A - Abdominal Pain
• C - Chest Pain
• H - Headaches
• E - Eye Problems
• S - Severe leg pain
What are absolute contraindications of oral contraceptives?
• cancer of breast
• genital bleeding
• heavy smoker
• liver tumor
• pregnancy
• stroke
What are relative contraindications of oral contraceptives?
• major surgery
• severe headaches
• smoker
• uncontrolled hypertension
What are drugs that interact with oral contraceptives?
• Antibiotics (especially macrolides): should not be taken together; decreases absorption of oral contraceptive; increased risk of getting pregnant

• Liver enzyme inducers (ie. Rifampin): increases metabolism of pill
• Anticoagulant: increases clotting with estrogens (may require higher dose of anticoagulants)
What are characteristics of Progestin-Only Pills?
• Less progestins than combination products
• Less reiable and may lead to irregular menses
• Good choice for patients with DVT, HTN, breast-feeding, & smokers