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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 types of strokes?
• Ischemic • Hemorrhagic
What are the 3 general categories of risk factors for strokes?
• non-modifibale • partially modifiable • modifiable
Give examples of non-modifiable risk factors for stroke
• age (risk doubles after 55) • race (hispanics & blacks at greater risk than whites) • gender (male > female)
What are partially modifiable risk factors for stroke?
• cholesterol • DM
What are modifiable risk factors for stroke?
• HTN • Smoking • Atrial Fibrillation • Obesity • HRT (hormone replacement therapy)
What are ways to reduce risk factors for stroke?
• control HTN • smoking cessation • tighter control of diet in diabetic patients • cholesterol reduction
What are warning signs for a stroke?
• loss of balance • severe headache with no cause • sudden numbness to any part of extremities (usually face, arm, or leg) • sudden confusion • sudden trouble speaking • trouble speaking
What is the recommended anticoagulation therapy for a patient with a low risk for stroke?
Aspirin 325 mg daily
What are the low risk factors for stroke?
What is the recommended anticoagulation therapy for a patient with a moderate risk for stroke?
• Aspirin 325 mg daily (if only one risk factor) • Warfarin (+/- ASA 81 mg if more than one risk factor)
What are moderate risk factors for stroke?
• 65-75 yrs old • diabetes • CAD
What is the recommended anticoagulation therapy for a patient at high risk for stroke?
• Warfarin • Aspirin 325 mg daily (if Warfarin is contraindicated or refused)
What are high risk factors for stroke?
• > 75 years old • CHF • HTN • Prosthetic heart valve • prior stroke • TIA • Thromboembolism
What is the treatment for an acute ischemic stroke?
• Heparin • Thrombolytics
What is the only thrombolytic approved to use for stroke?
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA)
What is the recommended time frame for using TPA to treat stroke?
• recommended use within 3 hours of symptoms • after 3 hours, there is no benefit with increased risk of bleeding
How long after administration of TPA will you see improvement?
3 months
What is the dose for administering TPA?
• 0.9 mg/kg IV (10% as a bolus, remainder over 1 hour) • maximum dose of 90 mg
What are contraindications for administering TPA?
• Active bleeding • High BP at time of stroke • ICH or history of ICH • Neoplasms (Brain) • Platelets < 100,000 • Recent surgery • Seizure • Subarachnoid bleeds
What are secondary prevention methods to reduce risk for stroke?
• reduction of risk factors • have carotid checked • antiplatelet therapy
What are different antiplatelet therapies that can be used for prevention of stroke?
• Aspirin • Aggrenox (Aspirin/Dipyridamole) • Ticlodipine • Clopidrogel • Warfarin
What is the dose of aspirin?
between 81 - 1300 mg per day
What is the dose for Aggrenox (aspirin/dipyridamole)?
One capsule BID
What are adverse effects of Aggrenox (aspirin/dipyridamole?
• Dyspepsia • Headaches • Nausea
Where does Ticlodipine work?
inhibits ADP induced platelet aggregation
Why is Ticlodipine seldom used?
Ticlodipine has a very high incidence of thrombocytopenia and neutropenia
Wha is the dose of Plavix?
75 mg PO daily
What are indications for using Warfarin as antiplatelet therapy?
• second ischemic event • AFib