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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Review of respiratory tract
oral cavity, pharynx (glottis and epiglottis), larynx (vocal cords), trachea, lungs, bronchi (primary, secondary, and tertiary), bronchioles, alveoli, capillaries
Functions of upper resp. tract
humidifies and moisturizes, filters, and warms external air as it enters the lungs
Drugs that maintain proper airflow thorugh resp. passages (not for treating specific lung disease)
Antitussive, decongestant, antihistamines, mucolytics and expectorants
1. purpose
2. other uses
3. main adverse effect
4. side effects
1. to suppress coughs and other minor throat irritations.
2. combined with aspirin and acetaminophen for relief of minor pain and fever; can inhibit CNS cough reflex; anesthetic pain relief
3. sedation
4. GI upset and dizziness
What is histamine?
a substance that is produced by the body any time cells are damaged; they cause vaso- and bronchoconstriction
1. purpose
2. how it works
3. adverse effect
4. side effects
5. types
1. to treat allergies, the common cold, and other infections that produce a runny nose and stuffy head
2. contain alpha adrenergic agonists which bind with receptors to create vasoconstriction, which drys up secretions and decreases congestion
3. nausea and cardiovascular irregularities in BP and HR
4. headache, dizziness, nervousness
5. ephedrine and its derivatives
1. purpose
2. how it works
3. primary adverse effects
4. side effects
5. types
1. sedation and treatment of Parkinsons's and seasonal allergies
2. an endogenous chemical reaction that involves two different receptors, H1 and H2:
H1 are on respiratory tissues and H2 are involved in gastric acid secretions
- these drugs block H1 causing decrease nasal congestion, mucosal secretions, conjunctivitis, and allergies (sneezing and coughing)
3. sedation, blurred vision, and poor coordination, fatigue, and dizziness
4. GI upset
5. Benadryl (crosses blood brain barrier & causes drowsiness), Claritin (does not cross nor produce drowsiness)
Mucolytics and Expectorants
1. purpose
2. uses
3. adverse effects
1. mucolytics lessen viscosity of respiratory secretions while expectorants facilitate the production and removal of mucous (i.e. prevent accumulation of thick mucous that block airways)
2. for acute and chronic resp. problems (colds, bronchitis, pneumonia and emphysema)
3. nausea, vomiting and inflammation of the oral and nasal mucosa
Adverse effects of Ephedrine
sudden death and tachycardia
Briefly explain 1. COPD, 2. emphysema, 3. chronic bronchitis
1. a comon respiratory condition caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis (smoking, pollution, second hand smoke)
2. a disease process involving destruction of the alveolar walls; enlargement of air spaces in lungs; SOB and decrease resp. exchange
3. caused by chronic irritation of the respiratory tract due to smoke and pollutants that increase and thicken resp secretions of mucous, which interfere with gas exchange (cough, infection possible)
3.why can you not exhale
4. symptoms
1. narrowing of bronchial airways due to smooth muscle constriction (bronchospasm); not a COPD because it is not a consistaent problem
2. triggered by environmental and emotional factors including exs and allergens
3. bronchial tissues swell, airways narrow and passages are blocked. Stale air is trapped deep in lungs forcing to use only upper lung area to gasp for air.
4. excess mucous, wheezing, SOB, CO2 levels increase-causes you to faint or go into resp. distress/arrest
Two Types of Asthma
1. Extrinsic: most common in children; family history of asthma; triggered by allergens (tree pollens, grass, and droppings of house dust mites). These are inhaled or ingested and adhere to mast cells that line resp. mucosa. Releases mediators (histamine, leukotrienes, and other prostoglandin derivatives); leukotriene play a larger role as a bronchodilator and antiinflammatory

2. Intrinsic: usually adult onset in 40s and 50s; no family history and they dont respond to allergy tests; no rise in antibodies that usually trigger antigen-antibody rx
How to Prevent Asthma
avoidance of allergens or other triggers: animal dander, perfumes/colognes, tobacco smoke, pollen, mold, fumes, dust; attacks will then occur less
First form of treatment for acute asthma attacks...
cromolyn sodium: prevents release of mediators (mast cell stabilizers)- this is more for children; prevents bronchospasm (does not cause dilation) so does not relieve symptoms of attacks; use is continuous and it is inhaled so may cause cough; is ineffective in 90% and will eventually require long-term corticosteroid therapy orally or inhaled
4 types of drugs used for COPDs and asthma
1. bronchodilators
2. corticosteroids
3. cromolyn sodium
4. xanthine derivatives
1. purpose
2. how it works
3. types
3. side effects
1. relax smooth muscle and expand airways
2. a) beta agonists stimulates production of cAMP which releases protein kinase and inhibits smooth muscle contraction
b) anticholinergic rxs block muscarinic receptors which prevents effects of ACH in bronchoconstriction and airflow improves
3. for ppl who cannot tolerate other bronchodilators; Atrovent is an aerosol inhaler (more for COPD)
4. dry mouth and tachycardia
1. purpose
2. how it works
3. admin routes
4. adverses/side effects
1. for inflammatory mediated bronchospasm; most effective for controlling this type of ashtma
2. inhibits the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes and the migration of specialized cells during any inflammation process
3. oral tablets and inhalation
4. edema of the face; lung cancer over time, osteoporosis, muscle wasting, hypertension, and type II diabetes
Cromolyn Sodium
1. purpose
2. use
3. admin routes
4. adverse effects
1. prevents bronchospasm (but not a bronchodilator); inhibits the release of histamines and leukotrienes from pulmonary mast cells
2. a preventative and decreases hypersensitivity
3. use continuously; by inhalation/ nasal spray
4. irritation of nasal and respiratory tracts (itchy)
Xanthine derivatives
1. purpose
2. type
3. side effects/adverse effects
1. inhibits the production of enzymes that prevent smooth muscle relazation; added when inhaled beta agonists alone cannot control symptoms; usually discontinued once asthma attacks are under control by inhaled corticosteroids and beta agonists
2. theophylline - once considered foundation of drug therapy for asthma but now is taking a secondary role
3. nausea and vomiting , flushing, headache, and hypotension/ restlessness, insomnia, tremors, and convolusions (caution with CVD patients
Non-narcotic Analgesics (pain) and anti-inflammatories include:
1. most common
2. duration of action/ use
3. uses
4. adverses
5. exs effects
1. aspirin (generic)
2. action: 4 hours max/ for pain (10 days), for fever (3 days max)
3. OTC anti-platlet (blood thinner), pain relief, fever (anti-pyrotic), anti-inflammatory
4. rining, dizziness, tachycardia, vomiting, abdominal pain, birth defects (for anti-inflammatory-skin rash, irritation), should be avoided for young children b/c linked to reye syndrome
5. decrease O2 uptake
1. most common
2. duration of action / of use
3. uses
4. examples as pain reliever
1. tylenol
2. action- 6 hours, use short term
3. pain relief (esp for soft tissues and bone injuries b/c does not inhibit healing process) and fever reducer
4. relieves headache by decrease of prostaglandin synthesis in CNS only
1. most common
2. uses
3. max amount
4. adverses
1. ibuprofen
2. anti-inflammatory, fever reducer and pain relief
3. 3200 mg/day
4. photosensitivity, GI bleeding, ulcers, kidney damage
Reye Syndrome
1. early symptoms
2. effects
1. somtimes follows viral infection, vomiting, agitation, lethargy
2. can cause intracranial hypertension, edema in brain, possible cerebral hemorrhage=death
Safety guidelines for use of acetaminophen
1. as a therapeutic does, its always safe
2. OD is the primary risk
3. following large doses, liver is unable to detoxify the metabolites
4. these toxins bind to the liver cells=destruction and failure
5. 2 times max is the recommended dose; 5-6 times can cause liver failure
6. there is an antidote if given within 8 hours of OD, can survive and recover; deaths are usually intentional
Precautions of Aspirin use
1. increased risk with therapeutic long-term use
2. mimics NSAIDs, even low doses given to elderly for CV benefits can cause adverses
3. OD can cause metabolic abnormalities, coma, seizures, hyperthermia
4. combined with alcohol-increased risk of GI bleeding; could have black tarry stool if not vomiting blood
Advice for distance runners
1. aspirin not advised because they are already prone to GI bleeding
2. decreased effects of corticosteroids
3. avoid peptobismol b/c it has salicylates
4. 30 min prior to exercise and after exercise take next dose
Name some NSAIDs COX-2 inhibitors
1. the 2 marketed
2. the two inhibitors no longer used and why
3. name 3 other NSAIDs in the order of the most to least potent
1. celecoxib (celebrex) and meloxicam (mobic)
2. vioxx and bextra because they were causing CV problems
3. Orudis Actron and Orudis-KT, naproxen (aleve), ibuprofen (advil, motrin, nuprin)-also most common
an injection into the joint capsule is called....
what is the quickest way to administer an analgesic?
which antiinflammatory drug is most common to be inhaled?
another name for acetaminophen
most common adverses of salicylates
GI bleeding, tachycardia
what are the main uses of narcotics?
pain, cough suppressant and diarrhea
at therapeutic doses is it easier to OD on Thothelene or Albuterol
when tisses is damaged, this substance is produced
define dysphonia
hoarseness (from inhaler usually)
in a 24 hour frame, how many mg would you have to take to reach toxic levels of NSAIDs
3200 mg
in the respiratory tract, beta 2 agonists do what?
cause smooth muscle relaxation
would a cortizone injection delay or speed up the healing process
delay healing
which type of asthma develops in childhood?
extrinsic asthma