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### 16 Cards in this Set

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 Understand the difference between the terms vapor and gas Gas - phase of matter which expands to fill container Vapor gaseous phase below boiling point temperature Define vapor pressure and partial pressure. Understand the factors which do and don’t influence vapor and partial pressure. Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a gas: affected by heat, other gasses present Partial pressure is the part of the total pressure of a mix of gasses that is exerted by one component of the mix: not affected by other gasses What physical measurement must be stated along with vapor pressure. Temperature Describe the difference between vapor pressure and vapor concentration. Which is used to describe how much anesthetic is being administered? Which is best correlated to the clinical effect? vapor concentration is the percent of the mixture that is a particular gas: Concentration is most often used(vapor% or %): partial pressure Define partition coefficient. A partition coefficient is the ratio of the concentration of a substance in one medium relative to another at equilibrium. Know what the Meyer-Overton theory relates to. correlation b/w lipid solubility of an inhaled anesthetic and minmum alveolar concentration (MAC) Understand the effect of blood:gas partition coefficient, cardiac output, alveolar ventilation, and tissue perfusion effect the uptake and elimination of anesthetic gases increasing inspired concentration, alveolar ventilation, or DECREASING cardiac output can all increase the speed of induction, the opposite effect is generally seen at recovery Know what government agencies set guidelines for waste anesthetic exposure limits and what agency can enforce those regulations. NIOSHA sets limitations, enforced by OSHA Know the limits for waste anesthetic gas exposure. Halogenated agents alone 2 ppm Nitrous oxide alone 25 ppm Halogenated agents with nitrous oxide • 0.5 ppm for halogenated agent • 25 ppm for nitrous oxide Define MAC Minimum Alveolar Concentration 1 MAC - 50% of patients respond to noxious stimuli/50% dont Measure of potency Know the factors which can increase MAC Duration Of Anesthesia Type Of Stimulation Gender Hypocarbia (P CO< 21 mmHg) Hypercarbia (P CO > 95 mmHg) Metabolic Alkalosis Hyperoxia Isovolemic Anemia Arterial Hypertension Thyroid Function Magnesium Hyperkalemia Hyperosmolality Propranolol Naloxone Know the factors which can decrease MAC Metabolic Acidosis Hypoxia (P < 38 mmHg) Induced Hypotension (MAP < 50 mmHg) Decreased Central Neurotransmitter Levels Hypothermia Hyponatremia Lithium Hypoosmolality Pregnancy Ethanol Intoxication Neuromuscular Junction Blockers Local Anesthetics Opioids Barbiturates Verapramil What is Dalton's Law of paartial pressure? The partial pressure exerted by a gas is independent of other gases in the mixture; therefore the partial pressure exerted by an anesthetic gas in an inspired gas mixture is the is the same as it would be if the gas were by itself. What is Boyle's Law? If the temperature is kept constant and the volume of the container is reduced, the molecules of gas will have the same kinetic energy, but collide with the walls of the container more often. Boyle Law - PV = Constant. When used to examine the effect of changes in pressure or volume it is commonly written as P1V1=P2V2. What is Charle's Law? If heat energy is added to a system, kinetic energy will increase. That will cause the gas molecules to collide with the walls more frequently. If the pressure is kept constant, the volume of the container must increase. This is expressed as Charles as Law: V/T =Constant. A more common expression when considering the effect of a change in temperature or volume is V1/T /T1=V =V2/T /T2. Temperature is in Kelvin. What is Henry's Law? The general definition of Henry's law is: the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional tothe pressure of the gas over the solution. From it you can derive the following formula: c=kP Henry's Law constant is dependent only on temperature.