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27 Cards in this Set

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dose
changes can cause different response even with a single administration.
frequency
can maintain level desired over long period of time, or can cause level to increase or decrease even if using same dose.
route of administration
I.V. vs. oral

A major differenceis seen in time of onset.
dose
frequency
route of administration
What are the factors affecting degree of depression?
General anesthesia
a drug which causes loss of conciousness (not arousable)
analgesia
-marcotics, ketamine used
loss of conciousness as well as amnesia - gases, nitrous oxide

muscle relaxation - curare used as an adjunct
What are the goals of anesthesia.
analgesia
particularly upon emergence from anesthesia.

narcotics, ketamines used
true
No one drug meets all of the three goals of anesthesia.

true or false?
inhalation
intravenous
What are the two different types of general anesthetics?
Inhalation anesthetics
administered by inhalation

Response upon administration- work too rapidly to see all stages that are there

Wish to see (and do):
-loss of conciousness
-amnesia
toxic effects for Inhalation anesthetics
-depress respiration, lower BP, and decrease HR

-arrythmias (especially in presence of adrenergic agents)
- nausea and vomiting - postoperatively
malignant hyperthermia
What is the "caution" for taking inhalation anesthetics?
Intravenous anesthetics
liquids

Thiopental (a barbituarte) - causes greater sensitivity to pain usually give analgesic (narcotic) as well.
Thiopental
causes greater sensitivity to pain usually give analgesic (narcotic) as well.
Responses upon administration of thiopental (intravenous anesthetic)
loss of conciousness
quick onset (works in seconds)
Toxic of thiopental
- depress respiration, lower BP, decrease HR

increased sensitivity to pain

nausea and vomiting- postoperatively
Ketamine
What intravenous anesthetic is not a depressant, but is related PCP?
Thiopental
Ketamine
What are the two drugs that are intravenous anesthetics?
ketamine
no depress respiration, may even increase respiration and HR - acts as a stimulant.
ketamine
causes analgesia without loss of conciousness at low dose.

what drug?
ketamine
loss of conciousness at higher dose, no skeletal muscle relaxation
Toxic of ketamine
(intravenous anesthetics)
upon emergence from loss of conciousness -- nightmares, hallucinations, frightening experiences

used in children (accept nightmares) and for minor manipulations (i.e. remove burn dressings)
Non-psychotropic
psychotropic
What are the categories that selectively modify CNS function?
Non-psychotropic
Epilepsy
Parkinsonism
Pain and Arthritis
psychotropic
Depression
Anxiety
Schizophrenia
Bipolar disorder
Epilepsy
Parkinsonism
Pain and Arthritis
What are the drugs that are Non-psychotropic?
Depression
Anxiety
Schizophrenia
Bipolar disorder
What do the psychotropic drugs treat?