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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Cognitive Enhancers used for?
in persons suffering from Dementia
What does cognitive impairment result from?
loss of Cholinergic neurons & other neurodegeneration
T or F: Cognitive Enhancers only provide symptomatic treatment only
Non-competitive NMDA antagonist used to treat dementia
What are the side effects of Memantine?
1. Agitation
2. Urinary incontinence/infection
3. Insomnia
4. Diarrhea
List the 2 Cholinesterase Inhibitor cognitive enhancers
1. Tacrine

2. Donepezil
What are the side effects of Tacrine?
1. GI symptoms
2. Hepatotoxicity
3. Should not be administered with Theophylline or Cimetidine (CYP1A2 interaction)
What drugs should Tacrine not be administered with? Why?
Theophylline or Cimetidine

CYP1A2 interaction
What are the side effects of Donepezil?
1. GI symptoms
2. Muscle cramps
3. Fatigue
4. Anorexia
What are the 3 stimulants used to treat ADHD or Narcolepsy?
1. Methylphenidate (ADHD)
2. d-Amphetamine (ADHD & Narcolepsy)
3. Modafinil (Narcolepsy)
What is the mechanism of action of Methylphenidate & d-Amphetamine?
release &/or block the reuptake of Norepinephrine & Dopamine
What are the side effects of Methylphenidate & d-Amphetamine?
1. Insomnia
2. Anorexia
3. Weight loss

1. Leukocytosis
2. Hallucinations
3. Mania
4. Paranoia
5. Cardiac arrhythmia
What is the mechanism of action of Modafinil?
1. alpha-1 agonist
2. NE reuptake inhibitor
3. increases Glutamatergic activity
4. decreases GABAergic activity
What is the name of the Non-stimulant drug? What is it used for?

What is the mechanism of action of Atomoxetine?
NE re-uptake inhibitor

"Nuclear Energy" (NE) Atom
What are the side effects of Atomoxetine?
Similar to the more stimulating antidepressants
-anticholinergic effects = dry mouth, blurry vision, constipation, urinary retention
Commonly abused stimulant that releases & blocks the reuptake of Dopamine, Norepinephrine, & Serotonin
Commonly abused stimulant that is a Methylxanthine Adenosine Antagonist
Commonly abused stimulant that inhibits Dopamine reuptake. Also inhibits reuptake of NE & Serotonin. Short duration of action = 10-30 minutes
Commonly abused stimulant that is an Alpha & Beta receptor agonist; also enhances the release of NE
Commonly abused stimulant that has more pronounced central effects with less prominent peripheral effects than d-Amphetamine & thus has a greater abuse liability
List 2 Amphetamine derivatives that also have some Psychedelic activity
Methyl-endi-oxy-amphetamine (MDA)

Methyl-endi-oxy-meth-amphetamine (MDMA)
What side effects do MDA & MDMA cause?
Dose-dependent jaw-clenching, tachycardia, & muscle aches.

Hyperthermia occurs at high doses
Commonly abused stimulant that produces both relaxation & increased alertness
What do Psychedelic Hallucinogens cause?
visual hallucinations, intellectual insights, perceptual disturbances, paranoia
Hallucinogen that has various effects on the Serotonergic system including agonist/antagonist actions at some receptors & altered reuptake

Produces pupillary dilation
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
Hallucinogen derived from Peyote cactus, similar to LSD effects & mechanism. Traditionally used for ritualistic purposes
Derived from Psilocybe mushrooms, similar to LSD in effects & mechanism
What do Dissociative Hallucinogens cause?
Emotional withdraw
Concrete thinking
Bizarre posturing
Hostile behavior
What is the name of a Dissociate Hallucinogen?
Phencyclidine (PCP)
What is the mechanism of action of Phencyclidine (PCP)?
Noncompetitive NMDA antagonist similar to Ketamine

Binds to a specific site in the NMDA receptor ion channel

Also acts at Sigma site
What do high doses of Phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust) produce?
P = Plank = muscle rigidity
C = Coma
P = Pyretic = Hyperthermia
What effects do Cannabinoids produce?
1. Euphoria & giddiness
2. Increase appetite
3. Antiemetic
4. Decrease Intraocular pressure
What is the active compound in Marijuana?
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) = cannabinoid receptor agonist