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36 Cards in this Set

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The mesocortical tract projects from the VTA to what locations? What does this tract do?
1. Prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex
2. Concious aspects of using drugs and drug effects
The mesolimbic tract projects from the VTA to what locations? What does this tract do?
1. NA, amygdala and hippocampus
2. Reinforces the drug use and is involved in momory of the drug experience
The volume of distribution of alcohol is basically equal to what?
Total body water
What drug blocks the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase?
Disulfiram (Antabuse)
What receptor does alcohol activate? What receptor does alcohol deactivate? What does this result in?
1. Acivates inhibitory GABA receptors in the VTA
2. Deactivates excitatory Glutamate receptors in the VTA
3. A very quiet brain
Wernicke's Encephalopathy is caused by a decrease in what?
Thiamin usually due to alcoholism
The administration of what substance can essential kill off the remaining thiamin in a thiamin deficient patient?
Glucose
What is the gold standard in alcohol detoxification?
Benzodiazepine
What causes delirium tremens (DTs)?
The fact that coming off the alcohol causes the once very quiet brain to become over-excited.
What is an example of a drug that you use to keep the brain quiet during detox? This drug also self tapers as you decrease the dosage.
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
What is an example of an alcohol detox drug with a short half-life used in people with liver problems? What is an even shorter acting drug?
1. Lorazepam (Avitan)
2. Oxazepam (Serax)
What drug is used during alcohol detox that is given adjunctively with the benzodiazepines?
Gabapentin (Neurontin)
Patients in alcohol detox have low serum levels of what?
1. Mg
2. K
What two drugs are used on patients with trouble sleeping during alcohol detox?
1. Trazedone (Desyrel)
2. Quetiapine fumerate (Seroquel)
What is the most reliable way to check to see if someone is in withdrawl or not?
Diastolic BP
What other drug is often used in alcohol detox?
Phenobarbital (barbituate)
Why should you not use clonidine in opiate withdrawl?
It blocks the sympathetic symptoms of opiate withdrawl.
What is a side-effect of using disulfiram (Antabuse)?
It inhibits the metabolism of Dilantin, Coumadin and isoniazid.
What drug is used as an opioid receptor antagonist that is used to treat opiate intoxication?
Naloxene (Narcan)
What anti-convulsant is used in patients that do not go through treament after alcohol detox? What other drug abuse situations can it be used in?
1. Topiramate (Topamax)
2. Cocaine and nictotine
Describe 2 keto-benzodiazepine absorption and half-life. Give two examples.
1. Rapidly absorbed and long half-life
2. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
3. Diazepam (Valium)
Describe 3 hydroxy-benzodiazepine absorption and half-life. Give one examples.
1. Conjugated by glucuronide
2. Short half-life
3. Lorazepam (Ativan)
Describe Triazolo drugs absorption and metabolism. Give an example.
1. Oxidized with a short half-life
2. Alprazolam (Xanax)
Describe 7-Nitro drugs absorption and metabolism. Give an example.
1. Nitro reduced
2. Long half-life
What benzodiazepine is abused most commonly?
Xanax
Benzodiazepines bind to what receptors?
GABA receptors causing and influx of Cl
Barbituates and Benzodiazepines both open what kind of channel? How are the two drugs different?
1. Cl
2. Barbituates open the Cl channel constitutively
What are two examples of barbituates that were throught to be non-addictive but ended up being adictive?
1. Zolpidem (Ambien)
2. Carisoprodol (Soma)
GHB binds to what types of receptors?
GABA-B which inhibits Nor-epi and dopamine release
What opiate partial agonist is legal to use in opiate withdrawls?
Buprenorphrine
What two drugs are used in opiate reversal?
1. Naloxone
2. Naltrexone
Opiates mainly use what receptor?
Mu receptors
In opiate overdose, what is seen?
1. Respiratory depression
2. Decrease HR and BP
3. Pinpoint pupils
4. Coma
What is the main drug used to treat opioid withdrawls?
Methadone
What two drugs are used in rapid opioid detox?
1. Clonidine
2. Naltrexone
How is ultra-radid dextox done?
They put you under general anethesia and give you IV naloxone.