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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
encoding
forming a memory code
storage
maintaining encoded info in memory over time
retrieval
recovering info from memory stores
attention
focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
levels-of-processing theory
deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes
elaboration
linking a stimulus to other info at the time of encoding
dual-coding theory
memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall
sensory memory
preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
short-term memory (STM)
a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds
rehearsal
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about info
chunk
a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
long-term memory (LTM)
an unlimited capacity store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time
flashbulb memories
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events
schema
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event
semantic network
nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts
connectionist, or parallel distributed processing (PDP) models
assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks
misinformation effect
when participants' recall for an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent info
source monitoring
the process of making inferences about the origins of memories
source-monitoring error
when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source
nonsense syllables
consonant-vowel-consonant arrangements that do not correspond to words
forgetting curve
graphs retention and forgetting over time
retention
the proportion of material retained (remembered)
recall measure
requires participants to reproduc information on their own without any cues
recognition measure
requires participants to select previously learned info from an array of options
relearning measure
requires a participant to memorize info a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved by having learned it before
decay theory
proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
interference theory
proposes taht people forget info because of competition from other material
retroactive interference
occurs when new info impairs the retention of previously learned info
proactive interference
occurs when previously learned info interferes with the retention of new info
encoding speficity principle
states that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code
repression
refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
retrograde amnesia
a person loses memories for events that occurred prior to the injury
anterograde amnesia
a person loses memories for events that occur after the injury
consolidation
a hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of info into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory
implicit memory
apparent when retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering
explicit memory
involves intentional recollection of previous experiences
declarative memory system
handles factual info
procedural memory system
houses memory for actions, skills, and operations
episodic memory system
made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences
semantic memory system
contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the info was learned