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38 Cards in this Set

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learning
a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
unconditioned response (UCR)
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conitioning
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a previouslyn eutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
conditioned response (CR)
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
elicited
drawn forth
trial
in classical conditioning, consists of any prsentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
acquisition
the initial stage of learning something
extinction
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
spontaneous recovery
reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of noexposure to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
stimulus discrimination
ocurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
higher-order conditioning
a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
reinforcement
occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response
Skinner Box
a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled
emit
to send forth
reinforcement contingencies
the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
cumulative recorder
a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time
shaping
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
resistance to extinction
when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated
discriminative stimuli
cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probably consequences (reinforcement or non-reinforcement) of a response
primary reinforcers
events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
secondary, or conditioned, reinforcers
events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
schedule of reinforcement
a specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over time
continuous reinforcement
when every instance of a designated response is reinforced
intermittent reinforcement
when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non-reinforced responses
variable-ration (VR) schedule
reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
fixed interval (FI) schedule
reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed
variable-interval (VI) schedule
reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
positive reinforcement
when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
negative reinforcement
when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus
escape learning
an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
avoidance learning
an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring
punishment
when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response
observational learning
when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others (called models)