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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
neurons
individual cells in the nervous system that recieve, integrate, and transmit info
soma
(cell body) contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
dendrites
parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
axon
a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands
terminal buttons
small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
synapse
a junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to another
resting potential
stable negtive charge when the cell of a neuron is inactive
action potential
a very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon
absolute refractory period
the minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin
synaptic cleft
a microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit info from one neruon to another
postsynaptic ptotential (PSP)
a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane
reuptake
a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
agonist
chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
antagonist
a chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter
endorphins
internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects
peripheral nervous system
made up of all thsoe nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord
somatic nervous system
made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
afferent nerve fibers
axons that carry info inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
efferent nerve fibers
axons that carry info outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands
central nervous system (CNS)
consists of the brain and the spinal cord
hindbrain
includes teh cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons
midbrain
the segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain
forebrain
largest and most complex region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum
thalamus
structure in the forebrain through which all sensory info (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
a structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs
limbic system
a loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas
cerebral cortex
the convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum
cerebral hemispheres
the right and left halves of the cerebrum
corpus callosum
the major structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
split-brain surgery
bundle of fibers that conects the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures