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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
any measurable conitions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed
a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
operational definition
the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
participants / subjects
the persons or animals hose behavior is systematically observed in a study
data collections techniques
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
research methods
differing approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies
a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
independent variable
a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
dependent variable
the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
experimental group
consists of the subjects who receive some special treament in regard to the independent variable
control group
consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treament given to the experimental group
extraneous variables
any variables othe than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
a confounding of varialbes
occurs when two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
random assignment
occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group of condition in the study
exists when two variables are related to each other
correlation coefficient
a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
naturalistic observation
a researcher engages in careful observation of behaior without intervening directly with the subjects
case study
an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
researchers use questionnaires or inerviews to gather info about specific aspects of participants' behavior
repitition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
the collection of subjects selected for observation in a empirical (observational) study
the larger collection of animals or people (from which sample is drawn) that researchers want to generalize about
sampling bias
exists when a sampl is not representative of the population from which it was drawn
placebo effects
occur when participants' expectations lead tehm to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
social desirability bias
a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
experimenter bias
occurs when a researcher's expectations or perferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
dobule-blind procedure
a research study in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group