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2.1.24.60
Muscle Disease Processes - Terms
As with any other part of the human anatomy, the muscles, their attachments and associated structures can be injured, infected, diseased, or deformed. Minor muscle injuries are usually diagnosed and treated by family practice doctors. They are also routinely treated in emergency rooms and clinics. More serious injuries or disease processes affecting the muscles will be managed by orthopedists and orthopedic surgeons.

These are the specialties where processes involving the muscles will be seen most often. However, people with multiple medical problems across several specialties may be treated for muscle abnormalities in some other specialties (e.g. neurology) as well.

There are literally hundreds of problems which can affect the muscles and/or the musculoskeletal system. Virtually every muscle has a different name for the specific type of injury which could occur to it. Because of the sheer volume of these individual processes, we will be focusing on more general problems and the most common injuries which afflict muscles. If necessary, any individual term can be referenced in a medical dictionary.

Muscle Disease Processes
As with any other part of the human anatomy, the muscles, their attachments and associated structures can be injured, infected, diseased, or deformed. Minor muscle injuries are usually diagnosed and treated by family practice doctors. They are also routinely treated in emergency rooms and clinics. More serious injuries or disease processes affecting the muscles will be managed by orthopedists and orthopedic surgeons.

These are the specialties where processes involving the muscles will be seen most often. However, people with multiple medical problems across several specialties may be treated for muscle abnormalities in some other specialties (e.g. neurology) as well.

There are literally hundreds of problems which can affect the muscles and/or the musculoskeletal system. Virtually every muscle has a different name for the specific type of injury which could occur to it. Because of the sheer volume of these individual processes, we will be focusing on more general problems and the most common injuries which afflict muscles. If necessary, any individual term can be referenced in a medical dictionary.
Muscle Disease Processes - Terms
Many of the disease processes are created with combining forms. For example, the combining form for muscle is my/o. The suffix which means pain is -algia. Therefore, muscle pain is myalgia.

EXERCISE


Below are several different disease processes which affect the muscles.
Which term best describes the statement?

Question #1 Lack of normal tone or strength. This happens in muscles which are deprived of innervation. Try not to confuse this term with atrophy (below) or atopy (which is a genetic predisposition towards hypersensitivity to common environmental antigens).
atony
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 60
2.2.24.60
The wasting away or weakening of muscle fibers due to a lack of usage. There are many different kinds of atrophy. Look up “atrophy” in a medical dictionary and read or scan the terms which appear under this category.
atrophy
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 60
2.3.24.60 Inflammation of a bursa.(A bursa is a sac-like cavity filled with synovial fluid (lubricating fluid of the joints) and located in places where tendons or muscles pass over bony prominences.
bursitis
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 60
3a. A sac-like cavity filled with synovial fluid (lubricating fluid of the joints) and located in places where tendons or muscles pass over bony prominences.
bursa
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 60
3b. Lubricating fluid of the joints.
synovial fluid
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 60
2.4.24.61 A bruised or torn muscle accompanied by cramps and severe pain. This particular injury most commonly affects the quadriceps muscle. (Incidentally, quadriceps is like biceps or triceps and always has the “s,” whether singular or plural.) Lay people refer to any muscle spasm of the legs or feet as a charley horse.
charley horse
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.5.24.61
A sustained spasm or contraction of a muscle accompanied by severe, localized pain.
cramp
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.6.24.61 Sustained abnormal postures or disruptions of normal movement resulting from alterations of muscle tone.
dystonia
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.7.24.61 Painless thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia due to fibrous proliferation, resulting in loss of function of the fingers.
Dupuytren's contracture
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.8.24.61 Similar to fibrillations or tremors. A repetitive, involvuntary contraction of muscle. The main cause is nerve damage.
fasciculations
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.9.24.61 Called also myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyositis. A group of rheumatic disorders caused by achy pain, tenderness, and stiffness of muscles and tendon insertions.
fibromyalgia
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.10.24.61 A thin-walled band cyst formed on a joint capsule or tendon sheath.
ganglion
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.11.24.61 A benign tumor of smooth muscle tissue, e.g. the uterus.
leiomyoma
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.12.24.61 A genetic abnormality of muscle tissue characterized by a dysfunction and ultimately deterioration.
muscular dystrophy
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.13.24.61 Muscle pain.
myalgia
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.14.24.61 A chronic progressive neuromuscular weakness, usually starting with the muscles of the face and throat.
myasthenia gravis
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.15.24.61 Any disease of the muscles.
myopathy
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.16.24.61 Severe contusion or tearing of a muscle.
myositis ossificans
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.17.24.61 The loss of nervous control of a muscle. This impairment is commonly thought of as related to paraplegia which is paralysis of the legs (lower extremities) or quadriplegia which is paralysis of all four limbs. However, there are many different types of paralysis affecting many different muscles and organs of the body. These can be seen in a medical dictionary under “paralysis.”
paralysis
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.18.24.61 Excessive pulling or stretching of the calcaneal periosteum by the plantar fascia, resulting in pain along the inner border of the plantar fascia. This definition applies specifically to the process which affects the plantar surface of the foot. Fasciitis is inflammation of the fascia. There are other types of fasciitis, which can be seen in a medical dictionary under “fasciitis.”
plantar fasciitis
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 61
2.20.24.62 An autoimmune disorder which causes atrophy and weakness of the muscles.
polymyositis
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 62
2.21.24.62 Inflammation of a tendon or the synovial(lubricating fluid of the joints)lining of a tendon sheath. Due to trauma or repetitive wwear. Hint: Can be spelled 2 different ways but one is preferred
tendinitis or tenosynovitis. Tendonitis is an acceptable alternative spelling, but tendinitis is preferred.
Which term best describes the statement? Chapter 2 Muscles - Muscles Disease Processes-Terms 24 fill in the blank questions. Pg 62
2.22.24.62 A strain of the lateral forearm muscles or the tendinous attachments near their origin on the epicondyle of the humerus. (Again note that when “tendon” is changed to another form, the “o” changes to “i”——tendinous.)
tennis elbow or lateral and medial epicondylitis
“o”
2.23.28.62 A disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which produces a toxin that causes muscles to go into tetany (hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles, specifically characterized by muscular cramps and twitching). Jaw muscles are affected first. Lockjaw is the more common name.
tetanus
“o”
2.24.24.62 Persistent contraction of a sternocleidomastoid muscle, drawing the head to one side and distorting the face. Causes rotation of the head.
torticollis
“o”