Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
psychological triad
the combination of how people think, feel, and behave
this refers to an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanism - hidden or not - behind those patterns.
basic approach
a systematic, self-imposed limitation to certain kinds of observations, patterns, etc. (a paradigm)
Biological approach
address of biological mechanisms such as anatomy, physiology, genetics, and even evolution, and their relevence to personality
psychoanalytic approach
the personality approach characterized by interest in the unconscious mind and the resolution of internal mental conflict.
phenomenological approach
the personality theory focusing on people's conscious experience of the world.
humanistic psychology
subset of phenomenological approach focusing on how conscious awareness can produce such uniquesly human attributes as existential anxiety, creativity, and free will, and tries to understand the meaning and basis of happiness.
cross-cultural psychology
subset of phenomenological approach emphasizing the degree to which psychology and the very experience of reality might vary across cultures.
a focus on the ways people change what they do as a result of rewards, punishments, and other experiences in life.
S data
Self judgements for evaluating someone's personality
face validity
a characteristic of S data questionnaires in that they are intended to measure what they seem to measure, taken at face value. They ask questions that are directly and obviously related to the construct they are designed to measure.
efficacy expectations
what you will attemt to do depends on what you think you are capable of, and your view of the kind of person you are has important effects on the goals that you set for yourself.
a phenomenon in which people work hard to bring others to treat them in a manner that confirms their self-conception
I data
judgments by knowledgeable informants about general attributes of the individual's personality, such as traits.
an important element of I data; they derive from somebody observing somebody else in whatever contexts they happen to have encountered them and then rendering a generalopinion on the basis of such observations. Ie; they are subjective.
expectancy effect
when people become, to some degree, what others expect them to be. Also known as behavioral confirmation.
L Data
verifiable, concrete real-life outcomes that may hold psychological significance.
B Data
information recorded from direct observation.
whether your measurement is free of irrelevant influences that might distort your view of the trait or state you are trying to assess.
measurement error
the cumulative effect of extraneous influences in reliability.
Spearman-Brown formula
random errors tend to cancel one another out.
the degree to which a measurement actually reflects what one thinks or hopes it does.
an idea about a psychological attribute, an idea that goes beyond what might be assessed through any particular method of measurement.
construct validation
the process of testing the theory behind a construct.
is the result you get with one test equivalent to the result you would get using a different test. does it apply only to the people tested, orco to all people.
cohort effect
the tendency of a group of people living at a particular time to be different in some way from those who live earlier or later.
correlational coefficient
reflects how strong a correlational trend is.
Type I error
involves deciding that one variable has an effect on or a relationship to another variable when it really does not.
Type II error
involves deciding that one variable does not have an effect on or relationship with another variable when it really does.
psychic determinism
everything that happens in a persons mind, and therefore everything that a person thinks and does, has a specific cause.
psychic determinism, internal structure, psychic conflict, and mental energy
what four ideas make up the foundation of pychoanalysis?
irrational, emotional part of the mind
rational part of the mind
the moral part of the mind
internal structure
this key assumption of psychoanalysis is made up of the id, ego, superego
psychic conflict
the clash of the id, superego, and ego!
compromise formation
the process by which the ego's main job is to find a middle course between the competing demands of motivation, morality, and practicality. a key tenet of modern psychoanalytic thought.
psychic energy
libido, the kind of energy required
doctrine of opposites
everything implies and even requires its opposite - life requires death, happiness requires sadness, and so forth. One cannot exist without the other..
1. a physical focus, where energy is concentrated and gratification obtained. 2. a psychological theme, related both to the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world during development 3. an adult character type associated with being fixated in that particular stage
the 3 apects of each stage of psychological development are...
oral stage
psychological development stage from birth - 18 months. Focuses on mouth. Psychological theme of this stage is DEPENDENCY. Unable to do anything on their own.
anal stage
psychological development stage in which the ego developes. physically focused on anus and associated eliminative organs. SELF-CONTROL; OBEDIENCE!
phallic stage
psychological development stage starting at age 3.5-4 to age 7. psychological theme is to figure out what it means to be a boy or a girl.
taking on the parent's attitudes, values, and ways of relating to the opposite sex.
genital stage
psychological development stage after age 7. striving for achieving a mature attitude about sexuality. Physical focus on genitals, not just organs of physical pleasure, but the source of new life.
"to love and to work"
freud's simple definition of mental health
the result of losing the battle of the oral, anal, or phallic stage and libidinal energy must be left behind.
the retreat back to the stage that is fixated on, causing continued struggles
primary process thinking
the type of thinking utilized by the unconscious mind of the infant and adult id. it does not contain the word NO.
secondary process thinking
the type of thinking we ordinarily mean by the word "think" the type of thinking that is utilized by the ego
used by primary process thinking to replace one idea or image with another.
used by primary process thinking to compress several ideas into one
used by primary process thinking to, through condensation, make one thing stand for another.
conscious mind
the part of your mental functioning you can observe when you simply turn your attention inward.
preconscious mind
the part of your mental functioning consisting of things you are not thinking about at the moment, but that you could bring into consciousness easily
the part of your mental functioning that includes all of the id and superego and most of the ego; buried deep.
therapeutic alliance
the emotional bond between therapist and client to support the client through the difficult process of conflict realization
defense mechanisms
the techniques the ego uses to keep certain thoughts and impulses hidden in order to avoid anxiety.
the leaking out of expression from the unconscious. "freudian slips"
caused by the psychic conflict within the mind
psychic conflict
the anxiety causing battle between the id, ego, and superego
ego psychologists
modern psychoanalyists
terror management theory
theory that many of our thought processes and motivations are based on an effort to deal with and avoid thinking about the fact that we are mortal and at some point will die.
defense mechanism characterized by the refusal to acknowledge the source of anxiety or even the failure to perceive it in the first place. common and effect in the short run, but if used for a long time can lead to lack of contact with reality.
defense mechanism characterized by banishing of the past from present awareness and therefore tends to involve less outright negation of reality. Not really denying that something exists, just managing not to think about it.
reaction formation
defense mechanism characterized by keeping forbidden thoughts, feelings, and impulses out of awareness and action by instigating their OPPOSITES. If a person is concerned they may have an unnacceptable trait, they might seek to display the opposite trait. Ie: hostile, shows exaggerated overt peaceful behavior.
defense mechanism characterized by attributing to somebody else a thought or impulse that is feared in oneself.
defense mechanism characterized by defending against the anxiety aroused by having done something that would otherwise cause you shame, by concocting a seemingly rational case for why you had to do it.
defense mechanism characterized by turning a heated and anxiety-provoking issue into something cold, and analytical.
defense mechanism characterized by replacing one object of emotion with another.
defense mechanism characterized by a type of displacement that results in high cultural attainment. Ie art, music, career path
organ inferiority
adlerian theory that indivs are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people, and that they try to accomplish this to compensate for whatever they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect.
masculine protest
adlerian theory of compensation for the past is seen in the desire of an adult to act and become powerful, becasue of feeling inadequate or inferior.
collective unconscious
Jungian theory that all people share inborn memories and ideas which reside in the unconscious.
basic Jungian images that go to the core of how people think about the world.
Jungian term for the social mask one wears in public dealings. A false mask because everyone keeps some aspects of their real selves private.
the idea or prototype of the female as held in the mind of a male
idealized image of the male as held in the mind of a female.
Karen Horney
influencial psychoanalyst that disagreed with the theory of "penis envy"
Erik Erikson
psychoanalyst who said that not all conflict is unconscious. Developed the psychosocial approach.
object relations theory
the analysis of interpersonal relationships. we can only relate to other people via the images of them in our minds and these images do not always match reality. Mismatch causes problems.
manifest content
what the person can remember from the dreams
latent content
the set of underlying intrapsychic events that lead to the manifest content of dreams