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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a theory of theories
big views that organize how facts get assembled (term is from T. S. Kuhn); paradigms create boundaries for theories
Aristotelian for "cause"
aitia; meaning that which is responsible for something
The Four Causes
material -> substance that makes it up

efficient -> sequence of events that leads up to something/event

formal -> pattern/structure of events that is observable over time; ex: traits, diagnosis

final -> the purpose that it fulfills; reason it exists
aka mechanism; to understand in terms of mechanics or the material and efficient causes
explains in terms of purposes, motives, aims (final cause)
knowledge is deductive and scripturally based
Diety teleology
are as they are because that's what God intended/was God's plan
Roger Bacon
proposed doing experiments to achieve knowledge; inductive reasoning
Francis Bacon
knowledge from observation (inductive); controlled experimentation; knowledge=power, and control over nature
Reductionism Empiricism and

stimulus-response model
Reductionism Empiricism and

materialist; humans like machines
Reductionism Empiricism and

La Mettrie
man and machine
Reductionism Empiricism and

all human events are reducible to mechanical and chemical causes (anti-vitalism)
Reductionism Empiricism and

reductionistic view of behavior
Reductionism Empiricism and

Reductionism Empiricism and

behavior from genetics and environment; "no place for intentions or purpose"; like cognitive neuroscience
Non-Reductionistic views
human volition (ability to make choices, decisions); act upon knowledge;; the "soul" would change behavior
Immanuel Kant
constructivism; against empiricist view of knowledge (i.e. we are not blank slates); we organize constructs automatically (according to time, space); knowledge about understanding
Constructivist Theory
abstract constructs as "organizers"; examples: Mendel's "gene" -breeding plants led to gene concept, also quarks
Unconscious Complex
a concept to explain facts
Nomological Networks
we depend upon it to make predictions, explain events, and interpret data
Construct Validity
how valid are these constructs
Organismic View
says that some properties cannot be reduced to parts; emergent phenomena exert influence; self-organization; properties unique to animate life