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74 Cards in this Set

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Measure HC until how old?
2-3 years
Infants temp is usually?
99.5 F
What's a usual pulse for 3mos-2yrs old?
80-150
True apnea is at least how long of not breathing?
20 seconds
What's normal respirations for 6 mos. to 2 years?
20 to 30
If the blood pressure cuff is too small, what will happen?
you'll get a false high
What's a normal bp of an infant?
80/40
children less than 2 years old will have a positive reaction to what reflex?
Babinski
This type of development occurs along the body's long axis. Control over the head, the mouth, and eye movements proceeds control over the upper body, torso, and legs.
Cephalocaudal
This type of development progresses from the center of the body to the extremities. The child develops arm movement before fine motor finger ability. Development is symmetric with each side developing in the same direction at the same time.
Proximodistal
When might the Denver Developmental Screening Test II be done on a child?
Ages 0 to 6 years
What's the Number 1 cause of mortality in all pediatric age groups?
accidents
What is the primary defense mechanism of toddlers and preschoolers?
regression
What is a common concept in ill preschool children?
magical thinking
What is an ill schoolager's primary defense mechanism?
reaction formation
What are the primary defense mechanisms of hospitalized aedolescents?
denial and displacement
How do preschoolers view death?
as temporary and reversible
What is the point at which someone first feels pain?
pain threshold
What is the point at which a person is not willing to bear any more pain?
pain tolerance
What is the QUESTT pain assessment?
Question the child
Use pain rating scales
Evaluate behavior and physiologic chantges
Secure parents' involvement
Take cause of pain into account
Take action and evaluate results
This age group may assume that the nurse knows they are in pain.
Schoolagers
What pain scales may be used for a newborn/infant?
neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS) or CRIES
What pain scales may be used for toddlers and preschoolers?
FLACC, Oucher, faces
What pain scales may be used for school age children?
oucher, faces, pocker chip, work graphic, visual analogue
What herbal supplements do parents sometimes give for inflammation?
chamomile/garlic
This is when a parent fabricates an illness in her child.
Munchausens by proxy
What are some clinical manifestations of emotional abuse in a child?
physical: developmental delays, enuresis, sleep problems
behavioral: habit disorders, fearfulness, conduct problems, behavior extremes
What are the major side effects to be concerned about when giving Straterra?
liver damage, suicide
These alpha agonists are given to children with ADHD, tics, or agression
Catapres, Tenex
SSRIs are given to children with depression, anxiety, or pervasive developmental disorders. Name some.
Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Luvox, Celexa
What are some of the side effects of tricyclic antidepressants (-amine)?
sedation, headache, dry mouth, GI upset, constipation, orthostatic hypotension, blurry vision, urinary retention, EKG changes
What are the side effects of antipsychotic meds (Haldol, Orap, Prolixin, Mellaril)?
sedation, movement disorders, wt gain, cognitive blunting, decreased seizure threshold
Atypical antipsychotics such as Clozapine, Risperdal, Zyprexa, and Serloquel are useful in treating psychosis, tics, PDD, agression, and bipolar disorder. Side effects?
sedation, movement disorders, wt gain, cognitive blunting, decreased seizure threshold, EKG changes
Mood stabilizers such as Lithium, Depakote, Tegretol, and Neurontin, have what side effects?
acne, polyuria, weight gain, dizziness, tremor, sedation
Mild MR is an IQ of what?
50 to 70
What qualifies as moderate MR?
35 to 55
What IQ qualifies as Severe MR?
20 to 40
Below 20 IQ is classified as what?
Profound MR
This is characterized by marked impairment in social interaction and communication, and a restricted repertoire of activity and interests.
autism
This child has normal or high intelligence, is clumsy, has poor handwriting, and exhibits autistic behavior such as hand flapping. Verbal functioning is normal but social deficits are striking.
Aspergers
This is characterized by repetitive, persistently disruptive and wilfully disobedient behaviors, including violations of age-appropriate norms and social rules.
conduct disorder
This is a milder form of conduct disorder with less extreme behaviors. Behaviors do not violate the rights of others. Examples: defiance, hostility, low frustration tolerance, substance use
Oppositional defiant disorder
Greatest risk for developing substance abuse disorder is between what ages?
15 and 24 years
This is a non-progressive motor dysfunction that occurs secondary to CNS insults of congenital, hypoxic, or traumatic origin, occurring in the prenatal, perinatal or postnatal (up to 2 years) period.
Cerebral palsy
What is the single most important determinant of CP?
prematurity
What is the most common manifestation in all types of CP?
delayed gross development
This is a group of disorders that cause progressive degeneration and weakness of skeletal muscle.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
What causes MD?
dystrophin, a protein product in skeletal muscle, is absent in the muscles
What are initial s/s of MD?
weakness in pelvic girdle, delays in motor developemnt, difficulties running, climbins stairs
What are common respiratory infections in children?
RSV, flu, Croup
What is a common GI infection in a child?
rotavirus
What are common skin infections in children?
impetigo, ringworm, lice, contact dermatitis
Why is mumps on the rise again?
children aren't getting immunized
Airborne precautions are used with what diseases?
Measles, varicells, TB
What does airborne precautions involve?
private room with negative air pressure, keep door closed
What diseases require droplet precautions?
invasive HIB, meningitis, pertussis, mumps, strep pharyngitis
What is a characteristic symptom of scarlet fever?
strawberry tongue
This is a state in which an individual has antibodies capable of preventing a specific disease.
immunity
a type of protein known as immunoglobulins that are produced by lymphoid tissues like the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow
antibody
any agent that stimulates a response by the immune system
antigen
what is naturarlly acquired active immune protection?
antibody production that is stimulated after exposure to a disease--lasts for life
what is nautrally acquired passive immunity?
no active immune process is involved, the antibodies are passively received
what is artificially acquired passive immunity?
antibodies are injected without stimulating the immune response
What are the types of immunizations?
inactivated, toxoid, live virus, recombinant, or conjugated
What is DaPT?
Diptheria-acellular pertussis-tetanus given IM
What is given to prevent polio?
inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)
What does MMR vaccinate against?
measles, mumps, rubella
What are some side effects of the MMR vaccine?
transient rash, pruritis, low-grade fever, and athralgia
Hib or Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine protects against what?
A number of serious diseases caused by Hib, including meningitis, epiglottis, pneumonia, sepsis, and septic arthritis.
This is a universal immunization starting at birth.
Hepatitis B (HBV)
This is spread from person to person and in contaminated food and water so the vaccination is given to children at 12 month visit and booster at 18 months.
Heptatitis A
This vaccine is given orally at 2, 4, and 6 month visits. It's a live vaccine, may cause mild diarrhea.
Rotavirus
This vaccine recommended for children 11-12 years old.
Meningococcal
This is a live vaccine given after age 12 months.
varicella