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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the single most prevalent chronic disease in childhood?
What are adult diseases that obesity can cause?
• cardiovascular disease
• depression, low self-esteem, decreased quality of life
• early onset puberty
• nonalcoholic steathepatitis
• type 2 DM
• pseudotumor cerbri
• respiratory disease
• slipped capital femoral epiphysis
What is the formula for calculating BMI?
BMI = [weight / (height x height)]

• weight in kg
• height in meters
What are the different classifications for BMI?
• underweight: < 18.5
• normal weight: 18.5-24.9
• overweight: 25-29.9
• obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
What is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis in pediatrics?
acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
What are the most common clinical presentations of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?
• edema
• tea-colored or cola-colored urine
What is an ASO titer and what does it indicate?
• anti-streptolysin O antibodies
• 4-fold increase indicates clinical evidence of streptococcal infection
What is the treatment for post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?
no specific treatment, mainly supportive therapy
What is the most common glomerular disease worldwide?
IgA Nephropathy
Differentiate between nephritic and nephrotic syndrome
• nephritic syndrome
- hematuria
- hypertension
- edema
- oliguria

• nephrotic syndrome
- proteinuria
- hypoproteinemia
- edema
- hyperlipidemia
What is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in kids?
minimal change disease (nil disease)
What are non-pathologic causes of proteinuria?
• postural (orthostatic proteinuria)
• febrile proteinuria
• exercise proteinuria
Why do patients with nephrotic syndrome develop hyperlipidemia?
to compensate for the loss of protein, the liver makes more lipids to maintain oncotic pressure
What is the usual age of onset of minimal change disease?
1-8 years old
What is the treatment of minimal change disease?
What is the 2nd most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in kids?
focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS)
What is the usual age of onset of FSGS?
8-16 years-old
A child w/ nephrotic syndrome presents with fever and a diffusely tense abdomen. What is the most likely etiology?
• spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Strep pneumoniae (most likely bacterial cause)
• predisposed to an encapsulated bacterial infection due to decreased immunoproteins & complement
When is urine culture positive for a midstream urine sample? cateheterized specimen? suprapubic tap?
• midstream urine sample: positive if > 100,000 colonies
• catheterized specimen: positive if > 10,000 colonies
• suprapubic tap: positive if > 1000 colonies
What is the treatment for cystitis?
3-5 days of Bactrim (or Nitrofurantoin or Amoxicillin)
What is the treatment for pyelonephritis?
• 14 days of antibiotics
• for ill children, IV antibiotics (Ceftriaxone, Ampicillin plus gentamicin)
Chilren under the age of 4 with UTIs should be assessed for predisposing factors. What are different methods to assess for
these factors?
• renal ultrasound (to evaluate for hydronephrosis & anatomical abnormalities)
• voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG): an x-ray of the bladder that evaluates physical abnormalities
What is vesicoureteral reflux?
• retrograde flow of urine from the bladder to the ureters and renal pelvis
• predisposed to infection of upper urinary tract and renal scarring
Describe the different classifications of vesicoureteral reflux
• Grade I: into a non-dilated ureter
• Grade II: into the upper collecting system (ureter, pelvis, & calyces); no dilation
• Grade III: mild to moderate dilation of ureter & renal pelvis
• Grade IV: grossly dilater ureter
• Grade V: significant uretral dilation and tortuosity
What is the treatment for grade III-V vesicoureteral reflux?
• antibiotic prophylaxis (Bactrim, Nitrofurantoin)
• monitor by cystography every 12-18 months
• surgical correction (for grade IV-V, breakthrough UTIs, or unresolving reflux)
What is enuresis?
What are the 2 types of enuresis?
• primary: never dry
• secondary: dry for at least 3-5 months
What is the most common cause of secondary enuresis?
change in the home environment