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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
At what stage in development do neural tube defects occur?
neural tube defects result from failure of the neural tube to close between the third and fourth week of development
What is Spina Bifida Occulta?
a midline defect of the verebral bodies without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges
What lab value will be increased in the amniotic fluid in patients with spina bifida occulta?
alpha-feto protein
What allergy are kids with spina bifida most at risk for?
What is anencephaly?
a cephalic disorder that results from a neural tube defect that occurs when the cephalic (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th day of pregnancy, resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp
What are other conditions that can be confused with seizures?
• benign infantile sleep myoclonus
• breath holding
• cataplexy
• gastroesophageal reflux
• migraine disorder
• night terror
• tic disorder
When can you wean a child off of anti-seizure meds?
if patient is seizure-free on medication for two years and no risk factors
What is the peak age of febrile seizures?
14-18 months (rare before 9 months and after 5 years)
What is cerebral palsy?
• a group of fixed, nonprogressive neurologic syndromes
• results from static lesions of the developing CNS
What are the different types of cerebral palsy?
• spastic hemiplegia
• spastic diplegia
• spastic quadraplegia
• athetoid
What are characteristics of spastic hemiplegia?
• decreased movement of affected side
• show arm preference at early age
• arms more affected than leg
• growth of affected limb stunted
What are characteristics of spastic diplegia?
• bilateral spasticity of the legs
• in infancy, when crawling will often drag legs
• scissoring posturing when held by the armpits
• delayed walking and toe walking
• usually w/ normal intellectual development and seizures are rare
What are characteristics of spastic quadriplegia?
• most severe form
• marked motor impariment of all extremities
• often associated with mental retardation and seizures
What are characteristics of athetoid form of cerebral palsy?
• rare form (previously associated with hyperbilirubinemia & kernicterus)
• affected infants are hypotonic w/ a head lag
• feeding is often difficult and speech may be slurred
What are treatment options for cerebral palsy?
• education
• exercise/PT
• medications for severe spasticity (dantrolene, baclofen, benzodiazepines)
What is the most common cause of headaches in children?
vision problems
A child presents with headaches. What two aspects of the history would make you more suspicious for a space-occupying lesion?
• waking up in the middle of the night
• middle of the night or morning vomiting
What are the 2 most common malignancies in childhood?
1. acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
2. intracranial tumors
What are signs of increased intracranial pressure?
• diplopia
• headache
• papiledema
• vomiting
What are factors that determine the prognosis of patients with intracranial tumors?
• site of tumor
• grade of tumor
• ability to completely resect tumor
What is the inheritance pattern of Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
How can patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy present?
• hypertrophy of the calves
• intellectual impairment
• progressive weakness
• proliferation of connective tissue in muscle