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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are labs to get for a neonate with signs of infection?
• Chem-7
• UA
Infants under 2 months of age are at risk for what bacterial infections?
• GBS (most common)
• E. Coli
• Listeria
Infants under 2 months of age are at risk for which viral infections?
• Herpes Simplex
• Adenovirus
• Enterovirus
What is the treatment for neonatal sepsis?
• GBS » Pen G
• Empiric therapy » Ampicillin & Aminoglycoside
What tests should be done on body fluids?
• cell count
• culture
• glucose
• gram stain
• protein
What is a normal cell count in CSF?
What is normal glucose level in CSF?
2/3 of the blood glucose
True/False: Babies under 2 months of age who present with fever but otherwise look healthy should arouse suspicious for sepsis
• Babies under 2 months have a 15% of dying if infected with GBS
• these patients should have a full septic workup and be treated with antibiotics
• The correct answer is: True
What is the treatment for a fever in a baby under 2 months?
• treat w/ broad spectrum antibiotics (Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime) while cultures are pending
Children 3 months - 3 years with fever and no obvious source should be suspected of having what?
Occult bacteremia (85% caused by Strep pneumonia)
What is the most likely cause of purpura fulminans?
N. meniginitis (Meningiococcemia)
What is the MCC of meningitis?
viral (80% due to enterovirus)
What is the MCC bacterial cause of meningitis?
Which type of meningitis is most common in the summer or fall?
meningitis caused by enterovirus
What are complications of meningitis?
• behavioral problem
• cerebellar or cerebral herniation
• cranial nerve palsy
• language delay
• mental retardation
• seizures
• sensorineural hearing loss (usually caused by H. flu)
• stroke
• visual impairment
What would CSF look like in a patient with bacterial meningitis?
• WBC elevated
• protein increased
• glucose decreased
What can be given to prevent Strep pneumoniae infection?
What are complications of the flu?
• secondary bacterial otitis media
• pneumonia
• less common (acute myositis, myocarditis)
What is an absolute contraindication to the flu vaccine?
allergy to eggs
When is a child with chickenpox contagious?
24-48 hrs before rash until all vesicles are crusted (usually 3-7 days)
When would you use Acyclovir to treat Varicella-zoster virus (Chikenpox)?
• immunocompromised patients
• severe cases of chickenpox
• adults with chickenpox
What are complications of chickenpox?
• secondary bacterial infection (skin infection caused by Strep pyogens or Staph aureus)
• bacterial pneumonia
• necrotizing fascitis
• encephalitis
What is the causative agent for Tetanus?
neurotoxin from Clostridium tetani
What is the early clinical manifestation of Lyme disease?
• annular rash (erythema migrans)
• usually 7-14 days after bite
Arthritis is a manifestation of the late stages of Lyme disease. What joint is most often affected in Lyme disease?
large joints (knee)
What is the treatment for Lyme disease?
• Doxycycline
• Amoxicillin
What is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
Rickettsia rickettsii
What is the treatment for Rocky Mountatin Spotted Fever?
What is the MCC of pharyngitis?
viral (90%)
What is the most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis?
group A strep
True/False: Bacterial pharyngitis is very common in children younger than 2 yrs
• Bacterial pharyngitis is uncommon in young children
• The correct answer is: False
What is the presentation of Herpangina?
ulcers in anterior pillars and soft palate
What causes Herpangina?
Coxsakie A virus
How is Strep pharyngitis diagnosed?
• rapid strep antigen test
• culture (gold standard)
What is the treatment for Strep pharyngitis?
• Viral: symptomatic
• Bacterial: Pen G
What are complications of Strep pharyngitis?
• peritonsillar abscess
• rheumatic fever
What causes scarlet fever?
group A streptococci producing erythrogenic toxin
What are clinical manifestations of scarlet fever?
• erythematous rash with superimposed fine red papules (most intense in groin and axillae)
• flushed face
• circumoral pallor
• strawberry tongue (tongue coated with enlarged red papillae)
What causes Otitis Media?
eustachian tube dysfunction or obstruction
What is the most common cause of Otitis Media?
Viral (RSV, adenovirus, influenza)
What is the most important complication of recurrent otitis media?
hearing loss
What is the treatment for otitis media?
• 1st line: Amoxicillin

• 2nd line:
- Augmentin
- Cefuroxime
- Ceftriaxone

• treatment for recurrent failures: myringotomy or tympanocentesis
What is laryngomalacia?
cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing airway obstruction
What is tracheomalacia?
flaccidity of the tracheal support cartilage which leads to tracheal collapse especially when increased airflow is demanded
What is another name for Croup?
acute laryngotracheobronchitis
What is the most common cause of croup?
viral (parainfluenza type 1 is most common)
How do patients with croup present?
• barking cough
• inspiratory stridor
• increased respiratory rate
• retractions
What is the radiographic finding of croup?
steeple sign
What is the treatment for croup without stridor? with stridor?
• without stridor: dexamethasone
• with stridor: racemic epinephrine
How do patients with epiglotitis present?
• drooling
• dysphagia
• inspiratory retraction
• muffled voice
• stridor
• sudden onset fever
What is the treatment of choice for sinusitis?
• Amoxicillin
• Amoxicillin plus Clavulanate (Augmentin)

* treatment for 14-21 days
What is the most common cause of bronchiolitis?