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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the conducting airways terminate into?
gas-exchange airways
gas exchange airways are made up of?
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
(p. 730)
what are the primary exchange units of the lung, where oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide is removed?
the alveoli
2 major type of epithelial cells appear in the alveolus. type I alveolar cells provide? type II alveolar cells secrete?
structure, surfactant
a lipoprotein that coats the inner surface of the alveolus and lowers alveolar surface tension at end-expiration and thereby prevents lung collapse.
surfactant
the lungs contain approx. how much alveoli at birth? at adulthood?
25 million, 300 million
pulmonary arteries are exposed to about how much pressure of the systematic system?
1/5 the pressure
about how much of the pulmonary vessels are filled with blood (perfused) at one time?
1/3
serous membrane that adheres firmly to the lungs and then folds, over itself and attaches firmly to the chest wall
pleurae
mechanical movement of gas or air into and out of the lungs
ventilation
actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism
respiration
formula for min. vol (liters/min)?
ventilatory rate * vol. of air per breath
the lung eliminates how much mEq of carbonic acid per day in the form of CO2?
10,000 mEq
receptor that is found in the epithelium of all conducting airways. sensitive to noxious aerosols, gases and matter, causes them to initiate the cough reflex
irritant receptors
receptors that is located in the smooth muscles of airways and are sensitive to increases in the size or vol. of the lungs.
stretch receptors
receptors that are located near the capillaries in the alveolar septa. sensitive to incr. pulmonary capillary press. which stimulates them to initiate rapid shallow breathing.
J-receptors
monitor arterial blood indirectly by sensing changes in the pH of cerebrospinal fluid?
central chemoreceptors
if alveolar ventilation is inadequate then PaCO2?
increases
major muscles of inspiration?
diaphragm, external intercostal muscles
what are the accessory muscles of inspiration?
sternocleidomastoid, and scalene muscles
when the diaphragm contracts and flattens downward, it increases the vol. of the thoracic cavity, creating what type of pressure?
negative pressure that draws gas into the lungs
the accessory muscles assist inspiration when?
minute vol. is very high ( during strenous exercise, or disease)
occurs at any gas-liquid interface and refers to the tendency for liquid molecules that are exposed to air to adhere to one another.
surface tension
the portion of the total pressure exerted by any individual gas is its?
partial pressure
blood pressure in the apexes of a standing or sitting individual is what compared to the bases?
lower
if the gas pressure in the alveoli exceeds the blood press. in the capillary, the capillary?
collapses and flow ceases
Approx. how much oxygen is transported into the cells each minute?
1000mL