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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
disorders of the venous system produce
congestion of the affected tissues and predispose to clot formation that because of stagnation of flow and activation of the clotting system
varicose veins
are dilated and tortuous veins that result from a sustained increase in pressure that causes the venous valves to become incompetent, allowing for reflux of blood and vein engorgement
thrombus formation in a vein and the accompanying inflammatory response in the vessel wall as a result of conditions that obstruct or slow blood flow, the activation of the coagulation system, or cause injury. DVT may be a precursor to PE
VV can be caused by
prolonged standing and > intraabdominal pressure are developing factors of primary VV
The trendelenburg's test
a tourniquet is applied to the affected leg while it is elevated and the veins are empty. The person then stands and the tourniquet removed, if the superficial veins are involved the veins destend quickly. apply the tourniquet with the patient standing and if veins empty when they lie down deep veins are patent
Chronic venous insufficiency
refers to the physiologic consequences of DVT, valvular incompetence, or a combination of both. the most common being DVT
CVI symptoms
tissue congestion, edema, and eventuall impairment of tissue nutrition, necrosis of sub-q fat, skin atrophy, brown pigmentation of the skin and breakdown of red blood cells
risk factors associated with venous thrombosis
venous stasis
hyperactivity of blood coagulation
vascular trauma
venous stasis
bed rest,immobility, spinal cord injury, acute MI, shock, and venous obstruction
hyperractivity of blood coagulation
genetic factors, stress & trauma, pregnancy, childbirth, oral contraceptive and hormone replacement use, dehydration, antiphospholipid syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia
Vascular trauma
indwelling venous catheters, surgery, massive trauma or infection, fractured hip, orthopedic surgery
most post operative thrombi arise
in the soleal sinus or the large vein draining the gastrocnemius muscle.
triad associated with venous thrombosis
stasis of blood, increased blood coagulability, andvessel wall injury
venous thrombosis manifestations
may be asymptomatic because of partial occlusion. when present the most common S&S are related to the inflammatory process, pai, swelling, and deep muscle tenderness. fever, general malaise, and an elevated white count,
treatment of venous thrombosis
prevention is the main goal, but after forming the goal is to prevent further thrombi, minimize valve damage, anticoagulation, surgical removale of thrombis, and venacava filter to prevent PE
compartment syndrome
commpesion of the muscle, nerve, and other tissues due to the increased pressure within the muscular compartment.
causes of Comp Synd
decreased compartment size due to constricting dressings or casts, infiltration of IV fluids,internal injuries and frostbite, and surgical closure of fascial defects
other causes of Comp Synd
increased compartment volume- fractures and orthopedic surgery, trauma and bleeding, posishemic injury, severe exercise, prolonged immobilization with limb compression(eg; drug overdose),thermal injury and frostbite, and IV infiltration.
treatment for comp synd
treatment is recommended when pressure rises to 30 mm Hg. reducing compression. limb elevation is not recommended, a fasciotomy is a last resort.
pressure ulcers
ischemic lessions of the skin and underlying structures caused by external pressur that impairs the flow of blood and lymph.